Eldest Tyrannosaurus (S/F) / (S/F-T/G)

vlcsnap-2013-04-23-16h51m43s165
The tyrannosaur as of June 12, 1993 (age 5)

The first Tyrannosaurus rex cloned by International Genetic Technologies, Inc. is a female which hatched in 1988, intended for exhibition in the Jurassic Park de-extinction tourist attraction on Isla Nublar, Costa Rica. Though the Park was never completed, this animal was successfully transported to the island where she would be housed for the next twenty-nine years until her removal in 2018.

She has the distinction of being the oldest surviving and longest-lived de-extinct animal, still living and in apparently healthy condition as of mid-2018. She is also the first known theropod clone, first successfully cloned tyrannosaur, and only confirmed survivor of the original Jurassic Park.

Name

As of 2004, this animal was officially dubbed “Rexy” by her caretakers. This name is derived from the Latin rex, meaning “king,” which is the specific epithet of Tyrannosaurus rex; it is modified into an English diminutive form as a sign of affection. This is a reference to her unofficial nickname in the novel, “Rexie.” She is seldom referred to by InGen employees by this name, with the last confirmed use in 2004. Instead, she is typically referred to as “the tyrannosaur” or “the T. rex,” though this risks confusion with InGen’s other Tyrannosaurus rex specimens.

During production of the film Jurassic Park, some material refers to her as “Roberta,” though this name has never been used directly within the film canon. Similarly, she is given the nickname “Gulper” in one of the early toy lines, but this name has never been used in the film canon. Rexy was a popular nickname given by the fandom; it was suggested to be official in the mobile game Jurassic World: The Game and confirmed in The Evolution of Claire, which released on June 26, 2018. The production nickname “Roberta” has become increasingly popular among older members of the fandom as a response to the more popular “Rexy” being confirmed as official. To avoid causing distress to these more sensitive members of the fandom, Jurassic-Pedia has opted not to use the tyrannosaur’s official canon name.

Biography
Early life

The first Tyrannosaurus rex ever successfully cloned, she hatched in 1988 on the offshore Costa Rican island of Isla Sorna. InGen had established a de-extinction research facility on this island; the first successful de-extinction had been performed two years prior with the 1986 hatching of a Triceratops. The tyrannosaur was among the first dinosaurs to be produced; while it is unknown when Baryonyx or Carnotaurus were first cloned, it is possible that she was the first theropod to be cloned. As she had turned 30 by May 15, 2018, she would have had to have hatched by May 15, 1988 at the latest (assuming that her age is based on when she hatched, and not when her surrogate egg was fertilized by InGen).

During her infancy on Isla Sorna, she lived in a small paddock. As many as six others of her species were cloned and introduced to the paddock alongside her; after a year, this particular individual was deemed ready for Jurassic Park and shipped to Isla Nublar eighty-seven miles to the northeast. Here she was introduced to a much larger habitat, the largest paddock on the island, where she would be exhibited for tourists in the Park once it opened.

Captivity on Isla Nublar

Unlike her infancy between 1988 and 1989, the tyrannosaur lived without neighbors or siblings in her paddock on Isla Nublar. She was regularly fed live goats, which became her favored food. For the most part, she was free to do as she pleased; InGen ensured that she got her regular supplements of lysine to keep her alive, and kept the tall electric fences running to prevent her from leaving the paddock. Otherwise, they interfered little with her life. She was left without much stimulation, however; as an intelligent animal, this would have caused her much boredom.

She reached adult size in approximately five years, having grown over forty feet in length by age five in 1993. The paddock was designed to hold one adult and one juvenile Tyrannosaurus. However, as of 1993, the younger animal had not yet been introduced.

1993 incident

June 11, 1993 began as a typical day in the tyrannosaur’s life; she wandered her paddock at her leisure, preferring to remain concealed in the dense forest near the Eastern Ridge. By the afternoon, her paddock was visited by Jurassic Park’s first and only tour; a group of scientists, a lawyer hired by InGen, and CEO John Hammond‘s young grandchildren passed the tyrannosaur paddock rest stop in the hopes of seeing the animal. She was not near the fence at the time, and did not approach after a few minutes even when a goat was brought up the feeder. That evening during a tropical storm, she did approach the fence to feed on the goat; while eating, her arm brushed against the electric fence. Realizing that she had not been shocked as usual, she investigated by pushing against the cables and succeeded in forcing her way through.

002
The tyrannosaur discovers that the electric fencing is off (6/11/1993)

She established the main road outside her paddock as territory using a loud dominance display. On the road she found two electric Ford Explorers, objects she had never been able to interact with before; while investigating these, she was drawn to a bright light emanating from one of them. This led to her discovering Hammond’s grandchildren, Lex and Tim Murphy, inside the vehicle. She attempted to break inside and grab them, but the children remained out of reach.

While she turned over the vehicle to investigate it further, the other members of the tour group came to the children’s aid. Paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant used a road flare to gain the tyrannosaur’s attention, drawing her away from the vehicle. Moments later, she turned her attention to a second flare lit by mathematician Dr. Ian Malcolm, who attempted to lead her further away; this time, she chose to continue chasing him rather than the flare after he threw it. Malcolm tried to flee but was instead pushed through the wall of a restroom when she attacked him. The building collapsed, revealing InGen legal consultant Donald Gennaro, who had hidden inside moments before her escape from the paddock. The tyrannosaur turned Gennaro into a plaything, gripping him in her jaws and flinging him around until his body flew apart.

Her newfound toy having already expired, she turned back to the Explorers. Grant had by now extracted Lex from the overturned vehicle, but Tim remained trapped. The tyrannosaur sniffed them out, but could not locate them visually as they remained still. Frustrated, she rammed the vehicle and pushed it over a cliff in her paddock, forcing Grant and the children over the cliff as well. Now having lost all of her playthings, she stalked off down the road and into the woods to the west. She continued to establish her dominance in the area using territorial roars.

Several minutes later, Jurassic Park’s warden Robert Muldoon arrived on the scene with paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler via gas Jeep to try and rescue the stranded tourists. Having found Gennaro’s remains and evidence that Dr. Grant and the children had survived, they were only able to rescue Dr. Malcolm before the tyrannosaur returned. With a new source of stimulation, she pursued the Jeep as it fled eastward up the service road, engaging in her first high-speed chase. Though she was able to keep pace with the Jeep for a short time, she eventually tired and gave up, turning back to head north again.

On her way north that night, she approached a Triceratops paddock from which the island’s oldest trike, Lady Margaret, had escaped. Adding to her night of firsts, the tyrannosaur engaged in her first hunt in the wild and first combat with another dinosaur. After a pitched battle (and brief distraction by Jess Harding, daughter of Jurassic Park’s chief veterinarian Dr. Gerry Harding), she was able to tear a horn off her intended prey. She is believed to have killed Lady Margaret in combat and dragged her body, minus the missing horn, elsewhere to feed.

Her location overnight on June 11 is unknown, but she was seen again in the mid-morning of June 12 in another paddock hunting a flock of escaped Gallimimus. She succeeded in capturing one by ambushing them from the forest’s edge, causing one animal to trip and fall. While it was vulnerable, she killed it using her huge jaws, eating some of it. She did not eat the entire body, as its relatively undamaged skeleton was discovered nine years later in the same location; it appears she was instead testing out new food sources.

By the early afternoon of June 12, she had continued westward across the island and was heard somewhere east of the Park’s perimeter fence. Later she hunted for food once more; she tracked a Velociraptor to the Visitors’ Centre, where she ambushed it inside the main rotunda. This inadvertently saved the lives of the tour group, who had been stalked by the raptors. After killing the lead raptor by crushing and thrashing with her jaws, the tyrannosaur was attacked by one of that raptor’s subordinates; despite the raptor’s furious effort, the tyrannosaur overcame and crushed her attacker while sustaining dramatic but non-threatening injuries. Eating both raptors, she hung around the Visitors’ Centre throughout the day.

Toward the evening, she returned to the Visitors’ Centre and discovered several humans within, including the Hardings and a Tun-Si woman named Nima Cruz. She chased them out of the building, but was tranquilized with carfentanil and distracted by a moving electric Explorer. As she followed the vehicle westward, she began to feel the effects of the tranquilizer, visibly staggering. She most likely passed out somewhere in the nearby woods, but not after causing significant damage to the rear of the vehicle.

In the later evening of June 12, she entered the Western Ridge and ascended to the edge of a cliff where she chased off a Bell UH-1N Twin Huey helicopter. After this, she continued north; she chased down a Parasaurolophus that had been freed from Dr. Laura Sorkin‘s research paddock, but as the animal escaped, she turned her attention to the nearest human prey instead. She chased them northeast into Dr. Sorkin’s research paddock, but found better prey there. Within the paddock was a parasaur carcass which a group of raptors had been feeding on, though only one raptor remained at the time. She killed the raptor as it tried to escape, eating it and dragging the parasaur carcass out of the paddock to feed on it. While eating, the humans disturbed her and she chased them off again in defense of her kill.

Sometime after this, she trekked eastward across the island. By the early morning of July 13, she had reached the North Dock, where she encountered the surviving humans. She killed and consumed mercenary Billy Yoder, then gave chase to Cruz and the Hardings. By some accounts, Cruz may have died in the attack; both of the Hardings are confirmed to have survived by escaping on a boat left at the dock. The tyrannosaur was last seen during the incident at the end of the dock where she had pursued Dr. Harding as he attempted to reach the boat.

Freedom on Isla Nublar

After the incident, the tyrannosaur enjoyed nine years of freedom mostly undisturbed by human interference. A cleanup operation in late 1994 confirmed that she was still alive, and as no other giant carnivores had been introduced to the island, she held the unchallenged status of apex predator and claimed the entire island as her territory. Her lysine deficiency had been cured during the incident due to the efforts of Dr. Sorkin, and even if this had not been done, she would have been able to sustain herself by eating lysine-rich food found in the wild such as eggs, fish, and animals that had eaten lysine-rich plants.

While some of the dinosaurs had bred on the island, she was the only one of her kind and was thus unable to. She did, however, regulate the populations of other dinosaurs. Her main prey included Parasaurolophus and Gallimimus, though she also preyed on goats left behind on the island and scavenged any carrion she came across. She is known to have occasionally preyed on other dinosaurs such as Triceratops and Velociraptor; in fact, her prey could have included nearly every animal on the island with the exception of healthy adult Brachiosaurus, which could fight her off with success.

Without any human presence, her range was restricted only by the natural environment. However, the absence of humans was not completely beneficial to her. At some point in the early 2000s, she broke a tooth during a hunt. The injury became infected, leading to a case of ragged tooth. This disease negatively impacted her ability to hunt and eat. Over time, she became malnourished.

Return to captivity

In 2002, InGen retook Isla Nublar after having been purchased by Masrani Global Corporation in order to resurrect Jurassic Park, now called Jurassic World. A contingent of InGen Security personnel led by Vic Hoskins captured the tyrannosaur on April 19, the third week of the operation, without any serious losses. Paleoveterinarians treated her ragged tooth, restoring her to comparative health. At this point in time, she would have been fourteen years old or about to turn fourteen.

She was housed in a habitat tailored to her specifications, Paddock 9, where she would be fed goat meat and given dietary supplements on a regular schedule. The paddock was originally constructed several miles away from the planned Main Street area in order to keep her away from the smells and sounds of the guest facilities. As of summer 2004, she was still in good health, but was said to treat her keepers with some degree of disdain, as though they had not earned her respect. By this time, she would have been sixteen years old. Jurassic World opened on May 30, 2005, by which time she would have turned seventeen.

There had always been plans to have a tyrannosaur exhibit someplace closer to Main Street, based on early concept art for the park released by Masrani Global Corporation. Despite the initial concerns that the smells of the park could agitate her, Paddock 9 and its sole inhabitant were relocated to an area just west of Main Street and incorporated into an attraction called Tyrannosaurus rex Kingdom. Here, guests could watch as she was fed seven times a day every two hours beginning when the park opened at 8:00am; guests who purchased the Adrenaline Package tickets could assist staff in selecting and delivering meat. During feeding, a paddock worker would throw a road flare at the food source to direct her to it; she was conditioned to associate flares with food, presumably based on Drs. Grant and Malcolm’s testimonies of the 1993 incident revealing how fascinated she would become with the light given off by flares.

According to the Jurassic World Employee Handbook, penned by Senior Assets Manager Claire Dearing, Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest tourist draw in the park in terms of dinosaur species. While there were other tyrannosaurs kept on the island between 2004 and 2015, this single animal was the only one confirmed to have been put on exhibit; this means that she alone was the biggest attraction in the park despite her attraction’s smaller guest capacity.

She became thinner during her second time in captivity, likely due to the smaller paddock providing her with less opportunity to exercise. Her health was otherwise kept well by Jurassic World’s paleoveterinarians, who checked in on her regularly. This enabled her to live to an older age than her ancestors in the wild would typically have reached, remaining in good health despite being twenty-seven years old by 2015. By comparison, FMNH PR 2081 “Sue” is believed to have died at the age of twenty-eight, while the oldest known specimen (RGM 792.000 “Trix”) is believed to have lived to over thirty.

Return to freedom

On December 18, 2015, an incident of corporate mismanagement led to the escape of a genetically modified theropod genus called Indominus rex. The animal had evaded attempts at capture and caused damage to Masrani Global Corporation assets throughout the course of the afternoon, including the death of CEO Simon Masrani. During the night of the incident, the Indominus had reached Main Street; attempts to utilize captive-bred Velociraptors to kill it were unsuccessful and led to the deaths of all but one of the raptors. The tyrannosaur would have been largely unaware of this, being shut within Paddock 9, but likely overheard the sounds of the hybrid and raptors engaging in conflict.

Her attention was drawn to the large maintenance door to her paddock being opened, something that was never done without her being restrained. She approached the open door, drawn to a flare held by Dearing which signified food. When she was led to Main Street, the flare was tossed to direct her attention toward the Indominus, which she recognized as a threat to her territory. She challenged this enemy, but despite her efforts, she was overpowered and thrown down. The Indominus moved in for the kill but was suddenly distracted by the Velociraptor Blue, who had survived the earlier attack and was infuriated at seeing her sisters killed. While the raptor clawed at the hybrid’s body, the tyrannosaur was able to get back on her feet and adapt her combat strategy to force the Indominus back toward the Jurassic World Lagoon. This caught the attention of the Lagoon’s resident Mosasaurus, which ambushed the hybrid and ended the clash.

The tyrannosaur establishes Sector 3 as territory (12/19/2015)

After firmly but non-violently establishing herself as dominant over Blue, the tyrannosaur headed down Boardwalk East toward the forest to recover from the fight. This was her first conflict with another large theropod, and it left her with numerous scars to add to her collection, but she had survived and was now free. Masrani Global Corporation still technically owned the island, but shut down the park and left Isla Nublar to fend for itself after the guests and staff were all evacuated. This left the tyrannosaur to roam freely again, and she established Sector 3 surrounding the Lagoon as territory.

But this would not be the same Isla Nublar she had known between 1993 and 2002. Beginning in late 2004, many dinosaurs were transported from Isla Sorna to Isla Nublar, along with hundreds of new animals being bred by InGen for Jurassic World. Most of these were able to escape into the wild following the park’s security systems being shut down; the other Tyrannosaurus were not among them, and they most likely starved to death in their paddock. This left her the only member of her species once again, this time on an island with a multitude of other large predators. Life in the wild caused her to bulk up, nearing her 1993 proportions again.

As of June 2016, she was still living in Sector 3 and was sighted on Main Street. At that time, a group of mercenaries hired by Eli Mills and Dr. Henry Wu were retrieving an Indominus bone sample using a minisub sent through the Lagoon access gates. While the gates were being closed, the group’s technician was ambushed by the tyrannosaur and chased down Main Street; in the process, she unintentionally stepped on the tablet controlling the Lagoon gates and stalled them, allowing the Mosasaurus to escape into the canal system leading to the ocean.

In early 2017, tectonic activity in the Cocos Plate reawakened Isla Nublar’s volcano Mount Sibo. Over the course of the next two years, pressure built up underneath the volcano, increasing its potential for eruption. The tyrannosaur was known to inhabit the northern region of the island during this time, competing fiercely with other theropods such as Carnotaurus for food. She was able to hold her own against even the largest competitors, weeding out weaker carnivores on the island as numerous species began to fall into extinction around her. All the while, Mount Sibo’s activity polluted the air and poisoned the water, further threatening Isla Nublar’s ecosystem.

Removal from Isla Nublar

2018 saw a continuation of the volcanic activity that plagued Isla Nublar throughout 2017. The humans who continued to monitor the island, including the Dinosaur Protection Group and InGen beneficiary Benjamin Lockwood, had no confirmation as to whether or not the tyrannosaur was even alive, though some sources suggest that it was highly suspected even in mid-2018. These sources also confirm that the other tyrannosaurs were almost certainly believed to be dead.

On June 22 of that year, the United States government and Masrani Global Corporation both agreed to do nothing regarding the threat to Isla Nublar’s inhabitants. Claire Dearing, founder of the Dinosaur Protection Group, cooperated with Lockwood’s financial manager Eli Mills to rescue the remaining dinosaurs, though Mills had arranged for the animals to be sold at auction rather than brought to a sanctuary as agreed. Days before this, the S.S. Arcadia had arrived at the former East Dock of Jurassic World in preparation, and mercenaries led by Ken Wheatley established a base camp on the island. The tyrannosaur was not located at the time, and some believed her to be deceased.

The virtual reality short film Jurassic World: Blue demonstrates that the tyrannosaur was in the northern part of the island, in an area affected by volcanic activity, at the time the mercenaries arrived on Isla Nublar by helicopter. She was shown to have killed a nesting Baryonyx and gotten into a minor scuffle with Blue over the eggs, but was frightened off by the helicopters arriving to the island.

On June 23, the Dinosaur Protection Group members arrived to the island to complete the operation, but found that many dinosaurs had been captured already. The tyrannosaur had still not been located, but was at the time stalking a Carnotaurus in the northern forests. According to some sources, she would frequently bully this smaller theropod away from kills in order to steal them, and was probably waiting for the Carnotaurus to make a kill. As the volcano’s magma chamber ruptured, the explosions caused a stampede; the Carnotaurus attempted to kill a straggler, but failed. It charged the DPG members out of frustration, but was ultimately subdued by the Tyrannosaurus which moved in for the attack and established herself as the area’s dominant predator. Most likely, the tyrannosaur targeted the Carnotaurus as prey upon realizing she would not be able to steal a meal this time.

As she roared to establish dominance over the other nearby predators, she was interrupted by a shockwave from Mount Sibo as the mountain finally erupted. Her victim was crushed under her weight as she fled in confusion, disoriented by the blast. Like the other dinosaurs, she fled east toward the ocean. In the chaos, she was captured by Wheatley’s mercenaries and transported to the S.S. Arcadia. She was cosigned by Tom Balogh, stored in a 12.5m x 5.2m crate (Container #21-1002-2647, Cargo #35705), and was logged into the manifest at 13:40 local time. She was the second-to-last animal captured, and thus the second animal logged into the manifest.

Over the next day, the ship traveled north from Isla Nublar toward Lockwood’s private harbor just outside of Orick, California. During transit, Dearing and former InGen animal behaviorist Owen Grady obtained a bag of blood from a vein in her neck in order to perform a xenotransfusion on Blue, who had been severely wounded by gunfire during the operation. While the tyrannosaur recovered from her tranquilizers and became angered by this activity, she was unable to cause any serious harm due to being restrained in the crate.

During the night of June 24, she was loaded off the ship and brought to the Lockwood estate where she was placed into a cage in the sub-basement. Mills’s mercenaries used shock prods to force her out of the transport crate and used a live goat to lure her into the cargo elevator, from which point she was delivered to the underground cage. Though she had been provided a meal, she behaved aggressively due to the events of the past two days.

She was not among the dinosaurs presented during the first half of the auction, possibly due to the fact that her capture was unplanned. The auction was interrupted at the halfway point by DPG activists working to shut it down. During the ensuing conflict, a gas explosion in the laboratory caused a hydrogen cyanide leak and damaged the ventilation system, making it impossible to force the toxic gas out of the building. The fluid, on the verge of precipitating into a liquid at that temperature, sunk to the sub-basement and threatened to kill the remaining animals. Dearing made to release them, but decided against it; the animals were released anyway by Lockwood’s granddaughter Maisie, who could not bear to see them die.

The tyrannosaur, among the last of the dinosaurs to flee the building, spotted Eli Mills near the exit having survived the stampede. She may have recognized him as one of her abusers, as she lashed out and thrashed him to death upon finding him. A Carnotaurus attempted to steal his body during the attack, but the tyrannosaur drove it away and gave a territorial roar to warn off the other lingering predators. She stalked off into the forest after establishing her dominance.

Sometime following the events at the Lockwood estate, she was involved with a minor incident at the San Diego Zoo in which she broke into the lion exhibit and engaged in a territorial conflict with one of the male lions. Due to an artificial moat separating the dinosaur and feline, neither animal is believed to have come to harm. As the San Diego Zoo is located in the heart of a major metropolitan area hundreds of miles south of Orick, it is unlikely that she wandered there herself; it is more likely that she was captured following the Lockwood incident and was housed in the zoo, and that she temporarily escaped containment due to a security failure.

Her current status is unconfirmed.

Skills
Physical strength and durability

The impressive size (over 44 feet in length) attained by this tyrannosaur makes her among the largest theropods, and among the largest carnivores living on Earth. Her physical strength is a result of this; her bite force alone is enough to shatter bone, and her enormous serrated teeth can dig into even tough meats and lift large chunks. She is the largest-known Tyrannosaurus rex with physical power to match, and her tough scaly skin provides her with defenses against many enemies. Together, these make her quite a survivor.

Despite the tendency of humans to ascribe her near-supernatural power, though, she is still an animal, and thus not invincible. She has sustained damage over her more than thirty years of life, including scraps with Triceratops, Velociraptors, Carnotaurus, and the hybrid Indominus rex; in some cases she has come close to death. She has also suffered disease and malnutrition among other environmental hazards. Nonetheless, she has made it through these hardships.

Combat strategy

Throughout her life, this animal has faced numerous opponents and thus has had to adapt her fighting techniques depending on the situation. Between her 1993 escape and 2002 recapture, she was the only large theropod on the island; therefore, during this period of time, her fights were solely predatory. She has hunted down and killed goats, humans, Triceratops, Gallimimus, Velociraptor, and Parasaurolophus; the only animal she is known to have failed to overpower is Brachiosaurus, which as a healthy adult is simply too large and strong to bring down.

Her ability to strategize during combat was exemplified during her territorial clash with the Indominus rex on December 18, 2015. During the first half of combat, she was at a disadvantage as the faster, stronger, and more intelligent Indominus pushed her into buildings and storefronts to cause her injury. During the second half of combat, once she had recovered from the beating she had taken, she adopted this same strategy and used her jaws to throw the Indominus into buildings around the area as well. This wounded her rival, and attracted the attention of a Mosasaurus which finished off the hybrid creature.

During the ensuing three years, her life in the wild put her against new territorial threats such as Baryonyx, Suchomimus, Allosaurus, and Carnotaurus as well as both familiar and unfamiliar prey items. This tested her abilities further, and while she faced more threats than any other time in her life, she was able to survive and even thrive on the island despite all the competition.

Senses

Due to the inclusion of DNA from a currently unidentified frog species, she is unable to distinguish stationary objects from a stationary background. This means that vision is not a very strong sense for her. Nonetheless, she is relatively good at locating prey using her other senses. For example, her sense of smell is among the strongest of any dinosaur; Tyrannosaurus can detect scents from up to ten miles away, meaning that while living on Isla Nublar, she would be able to detect prey from all the way across the island.

Views
Self-perception

This animal has been studied very extensively, so much about her perception of herself and her world is known. She is believed to percieve herself as superior to other creatures, likely owing to the fact that she did not encounter another large predator for the first twenty-seven years of her life. She appears to have astounding confidence as a result of this, not hesitating to go toe-to-toe with the largest creatures in her environment.

Her behavior also provides interesting insight into gender roles in Tyrannosaurus rex. A mated pair of tyrannosaurs, one male and one female, which lived on Isla Sorna between 1988 and 2004 used distinctly different vocalizations, with the female using higher yowling cries and the male using lower bellowing roars. The female which was first moved to Isla Nublar, however, was isolated from her own kind at the age of one, and has been documented using vocalizations that are believed to be reserved for male tyrannosaurs. This suggests that perception of gender in this species is socially derived rather than inherent in their biology, and that having never been socialized like others of her kind during adolescence, this individual developed a form of self-perception that diverges from the norm.

On other animals

This tyrannosaur generally views other creatures as inferior, being territorial rivals at best. Special mention should be given to the genus Carnotaurus, which she appears to have had frequent conflict with. Her large size allows her to steal carcasses from a Carnotaurus, but the speed of the Carnotaurus makes it a tough opponent.

She is tolerant of the tiny Compsognathus, though they too sometimes steal scraps of food from her; they are much too small and fast for her to easily kill, but they still know to run away when she is on the move or behaving aggressively.

Humans, while distinctly different from other animal species, are still looked down upon by this dinosaur. Jurassic World’s lead animal trainer circa 2004 described her as acting as though the park’s employees had not earned her respect, and that she considered herself the island’s rightful ruler. She grew tired during her thirteen years of captivity in Paddock 9, however, and did not appear to be making any active escape attempts like she did in the original Jurassic Park. Her treatment of humans when in the wild depends on her mood; she sometimes views them as prey, but will pass them up if larger food sources exist. She more often ignores them, but if she is bored or feeling playful she will use humans as a source of entertainment by scaring them so she can chase them. Once she catches one, she may thrash it around enthusiastically until the limbs detach.

Relationships
Dr. Henry Wu and InGen

Like nearly all of InGen’s animals, her genetic code was designed by geneticist Dr. Henry Wu, who was responsible for her creation. She was his first success at cloning Tyrannosaurus rex, and was doubtlessly a source of pride for him because of that. However, his work mostly took place in the lab, and so once she was in her paddock on Isla Nublar he most likely saw her only infrequently.

Other InGen staff members were responsible for providing her food and water, as well as ensuring that she remained in good health. While Jurassic Park suffered from a lack of neopaleontological knowledge, this animal appeared entirely healthy, if understimulated, in 1993.

Paleogeneticist Dr. Laura Sorkin was less impressed with the result of Dr. Wu’s work on the tyrannosaur, believing that her motion-based visual acuity was a coding error rather than a natural feature. Despite her insistence, Dr. Wu did not look into the issue. Though she took offense at the supposed error, she still considered the tyrannosaur itself an incredible example of predator evolution.

The Tyrannosaurus rex was CEO Dr. John P. A. Hammond‘s pride and joy at Jurassic Park, clearly visible as one of his favorites as it appeared on the Jurassic Park logo itself. He was known to brag about her fearsome speed. As Hammond’s former business partner Benjamin Lockwood would have been involved when the tyrannosaur was hatched, it was likely that he took similar pride in their creation. Park warden Robert Muldoon was more paranoid about her strength and speed, worrying that she could pose a threat even when the power was on. He would end up personally racing against her in a gas-powered Jeep during the 1993 incident, evading her. Park veterinarian Dr. Gerry Harding would probably have provided medical care to her during normal operations, but during the incident was directly threatened by her on several occasions as she staked out the entire island as territory.

She attained freedom during the 1993 incident due to the sabotage perpetrated by InGen’s chief programmer Dennis Nedry, though he did not actually intend for any animals to escape.

InGen returned to Isla Nublar in 2002, and a squad of Security members led by the new Chief of Security Vic Hoskins on April 19. She was subdued without any serious losses to InGen Security, though she was suffering from ragged tooth at the time and thus not completely healthy or as well-fed as she could have been. Having been in the wild for almost nine entire years, she was indignant about being put back in a paddock and was known to treat InGen employees with disdain. However, she was kept in excellent health by InGen as she aged, though she was still not given the opportunity to hunt and was kept in a rather small paddock. Her creator, Dr. Wu, would also return to the island in the early 2000s; his work into hybridization would utilize Tyrannosaurus rex DNA, but it is not known if this particular specimen was the gene donor.

On December 18, 2015, she was released from captivity by Jurassic World technician Lowery Cruthers at the behest of Senior Assets Manager Claire Dearing as a last-ditch effort to save the remaining guests and staff on the island from the Indominus rex. Dearing herself used a road flare to lure the tyrannosaur onto Main Street and to direct the tyrannosaur’s attention to the other creature, knowing that the tyrannosaur had been conditioned to associate flares with food. This effort saved the lives of countless people, including animal behaviorist Owen Grady who was also on the scene.

While her capture and presence on the Arcadia in 2018 was a result of Henry Wu’s continued genetic research and Benjamin Lockwood’s obligation to Hammond’s memory, neither man was affiliated with InGen any longer.

Jurassic Park/Jurassic World guests

The tyrannosaur may have been seen by Maisie Lockwood, the daughter of Benjamin Lockwood, sometime between 1989 and 1993 when she visited the Park.

While she was originally intended to be the star attraction at Jurassic Park, only one tour was ever carried out. Park guests on this sole tour included three American scientists (Dr. Ian Malcolm, Dr. Alan Grant, and Dr. Ellie Sattler), a legal consultant for InGen (Donald Gennaro), and John Hammond’s two young grandchildren (Lex Murphy and Tim Murphy). Also on the island at the time was Dr. Harding’s daughter Jess, as well as corporate spy for BioSyn Nima Cruz.

When she first escaped captivity, the tyrannosaur threatened the lives of the tour group (minus Dr. Sattler, who had accompanied Dr. Harding back to the Visitors’ Centre). During the attack, Dr. Malcolm was gravely wounded and Dr. Grant and the Murphy children were forced over a cliff into the paddock. Gennaro was killed during these events. Despite the carnage, the tyrannosaur had already eaten and was actually behaving in a playful, exploratory manner. Her enormous size and strength made her a deadly threat even if she was not intending to eat them.

Shortly after this, Dr. Sattler would also encounter her as she and Muldoon rescued Dr. Malcolm from the ruins of the rest stop. She pursued the Jeep for a short distance before tiring, but shortly thereafter encountered the Hardings and Cruz at the Triceratops paddock. She mostly concentrated on hunting one of the herbivorous dinosaurs, but her presence still threatened the humans there.

On June 12, she inadvertently saved the lives of Drs. Grant and Sattler and the Murphy children by preying on a Velociraptor which had itself been about to prey on the humans. The Hardings and Cruz were not as lucky, encountering her later that evening when there were no other prey items around for her to target. She would go on to threaten them several times over the course of the next day, with some accounts suggesting that Cruz perished on June 13. Not all accounts agree with this, however.

Other visitors to the Park on June 12 and 13 were two groups of mercenaries, most of which were killed by Troodons shortly after landing. The survivors, Billy Yoder and Oscar Morales, encountered the tyrannosaur on a few occasions; Yoder in particular was eaten on the morning of June 13 at the North Dock.

While there is no evidence that the first incident’s survivors encountered her again, Dr. Ian Malcolm would later play a role in June 2018 hearings with the United States Senate in which he helped to convince the U.S. government to allow the dinosaurs to die in what he considered a fortuitous natural disaster. This would, of course, include the tyrannosaur; he was not present at the time she unintentionally rescued the other survivors, so this action would have no bearing on his decision.

Between May 30, 2005 and December 18, 2015, the tyrannosaur saw millions of visitors come to her attraction in Jurassic World. She was the park’s biggest tourist draw just as Hammond had predicted, even more so than the popular Triceratops and the high-capacity Mosasaurus Feeding Show. Some tourists purchased special ticket packages in order to participate in the food selection and delivery process. Even until the park’s closing day, her attraction saw dozens of guests during each of the seven feeding shows that took place throughout the day. In particular, Claire Dearing’s nephews Zach and Gray Mitchell witnessed the 2:00pm feeding show on the day the park closed.

During the incident in 2015, she was released from captivity and was drawn into combat to save not only the Mitchell boys, but the twenty thousand or so remaining tourists on Isla Nublar from the Indominus rex. Had the creature been able to reach the hotel complex, the body count would have easily skyrocketed and it is highly likely the situation would have been escalated by InGen or a government authority. Through the simple act of defending her territory, the tyrannosaur unintentionally saved countless lives.

Dinosaur Protection Group

As the last known Tyrannosaurus rex, her survival was a high-priority issue for the Dinosaur Protection Group, founded by Claire Dearing in 2017. She was featured on their Adopt-a-Dinosaur page and was generally implied by marketing to be alive on Isla Nublar, despite there being no confirmation of her status.

Dearing’s associates Franklin Webb and Zia Rodriguez accompanied Dearing and Grady on a mission to Isla Nublar on June 23 funded by the Lockwood Foundation. While Webb was anxious about meeting the tyrannosaur and speculated that she might have died of old age, Rodriguez held out hope that the animal was still alive.

They encountered her at the tail end of a stampede caused by activity at Mount Sibo, where she was seen taking down a rival Carnotaurus. This was fortunate for Dearing, Grady, and Webb, who had just become the subject of the smaller theropod’s frustration. Rodriguez was not present at the time, but later would suggest that Dearing and Grady use a blood sample from the tyrannosaur to perform a xenotransfusion on Velociraptor Blue. This led to the two entering the tyrannosaur’s crate, obtaining the blood sample while the animal was still tranquilized. She woke partway through the operation, but the restrictive size of the crate prevented her from killing Dearing or Grady.

Rodriguez never met the tyrannosaur directly, witnessing her only at the end of the Lockwood incident when the animal’s life was endangered by a hydrogen cyanide leak. Dearing contemplated freeing the animals into the nearby forest to save them, but decided against it; her companions were saddened by this inevitability, but appeared to agree with her decision to let the dinosaurs die. Dearing’s choice was overridden by Maisie Lockwood, the granddaughter of Benjamin Lockwood, who had recently allied herself with the DPG and refused to allow the dinosaurs to die. Her actions allowed the tyrannosaur, and the other surviving animals, to escape to freedom.

Eli Mills and mercenaries

Sometime in early-to-mid-June of 2018, former InGen geneticist Henry Wu and Lockwood Foundation manager Eli Mills hired mercenary Ken Wheatley to retrieve dinosaurs from Isla Nublar to finance the in-development Indoraptor hybrid. The tyrannosaur’s survival was unconfirmed at that point, so she was not one of their target species. Nonetheless, Wheatley and his underlings saw value in the creature, so when the eruption of Mount Sibo drove her directly toward them they captured her in short order.

She was transported via the S.S. Arcadia to the Lockwood estate, where she was held in the sub-basement laboratory overnight. She was not put up for auction; she may have been slated to appear closer to the end of the auction, or held to be sold at a later date. In either case, no action was taken regarding her before the auction was disrupted by Owen Grady. Later that night, she was freed in order to save her from death by hydrogen cyanide poisoning. She was among the last of the dinosaurs to escape the estate. Upon getting outside, she encountered Mills and lashed out to kill him. It is unclear if she recognized him personally or simply blamed the first human she saw for the misfortunes and abuses she endured over the past two days.

Other animals

When she was hatched in 1988, the tyrannosaur lived in a small paddock with as many as six others of her kind. She likely lived alongside a male and female that would later be involved with the 1997 incident on Isla Sorna and the subsequent incident in San Diego. She may also have lived alongside a younger male, but he may not have hatched until after she left the island. Her relationships with these other tyrannosaurs is mostly unknown, but does not appear to have involved any significant conflict.

As an adult, she kept her own territory on Isla Nublar. She tolerated the presence of numerous other animals, if only because they provided her with ample prey. She is known to have killed and eaten at least one and likely two or more Triceratops, three Velociraptors including The Big One and one of her subordinates, a Gallimimus, and a goat during the 1993 incident alone. She continued to hunt and prey on various animals during the interim between 1993 and 2002, reducing the population on the island significantly. Her favored prey included goats, Gallimimus, and Parasaurolophus, but she could prey on more or less any animal excepting an adult Brachiosaurus, which she has been observed attempting and failing to bring down. She tolerated the presence of Troodon and Compsognathus in her territory, though the Troodons were only passing through on a hunt and mainly lived in the maintenance tunnels below.

Between January 2004 and May 2005, many dinosaurs were shipped from Isla Sorna to Isla Nublar. Earlier in the year, much of this was reintroduction of animals that had been temporarily relocated, but by the summer concerns about an ecological collapse on the island prompted Masrani Global Corporation to relocate all of the animals they could to Isla Nublar for safekeeping. This would have included any surviving tyrannosaurs, possibly including the eldest’s former paddock-mates and their offspring. They were not kept in Paddock 9, but rather a separate enclosure located within hearing range of the IMAX Theatre. This would place it close enough that the younger tyrannosaurs could hear her vocalizations, and vice versa. It is unknown how much communication they would have engaged in, but they would have been the only members of her own kind she encountered in her adult life.

Her release from captivity on the night of December 18, 2015 saw her almost immediately engage in combat for territory with the escaped Indominus rex. Though the younger animal overpowered her, the tyrannosaur was joined by an IBRIS Velociraptor dubbed Blue who sought revenge for the deaths of her sisters. Both animals took advantage of one another’s presence to overcome their shared enemy, which was eventually ambushed and killed by the park’s Mosasaurus at the water’s edge. The tyrannosaur established dominance over Blue via eye contact, and Blue showed signs of submission; the two went separate ways after this, having no desire to fight.

Living in the central part of the island near the Lagoon put her close to other dinosaurs once again, including Pteranodon, Dimorphodon, Sinoceratops, Brachiosaurus, and Dilophosaurus. The Mosasaurus remained there until June of 2016, but went into a state of inactivity due to the loss of her food sources and did not appear to be a concern; the tyrannosaur could be seen approaching the water’s edge without fear while the great reptile still lived there. The other tyrannosaurs were never released from captivity, and likely starved to death in their holding paddock as she would have been powerless to free them.

By 2018, most of the larger dinosaurs had been drawn northward, presumably by the magnetic activity caused by Mount Sibo. The tyrannosaur followed, needing to continue hunting. She found new foes in the north, including Baryonyx and Carnotaurus, as well as more familiar animals such as Blue and the old Brachiosaurus. She competed for food and territory with the carnivores, and targeted the medium-sized and smaller herbivores as prey. She would have had to be careful on the hunt, however; the more defenseless herbivores such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus dwindled in number over time, with some species becoming extinct by early 2018. Even some of her competitors, such as Metriacanthosaurus, died out. Like Isla Sorna, there were simply too many creatures in too small a space. Many of the surviving herbivores were heavily armored and thus dangerous, so the tyrannosaur resorted to kleptoparasitism to stay alive. She frequently stole kills from the smaller but faster and scrappier Carnotaurus, using her bulk to bully them away from carcasses. She is believed to have killed a sickly Suchomimus at some point, and continued to hunt Parasaurolophus and Gallimimus.

During the eruption of Mount Sibo on June 23, 2018, she ambushed and killed a rival Carnotaurus after it failed to kill a Sinoceratops. As she partially relied on the Carnotaurus as a source of food via theft, the fact that she attacked the creature presumably with intent to eat it suggests that food she could readily access was becoming very scarce.

While being transported from Isla Nublar to the Lockwood estate, she saved Blue by unwillingly acting as a blood donor for xenotransfusion. Blue was in danger of dying from shock and blood loss, but was saved thanks to the efforts of DPG activists who retrieved the blood sample.

The tyrannosaur was held overnight on the 24th of June along with the other surviving dinosaurs, several of which were sold to domestic and international black-market buyers. She was not among those sold, and escaped safely into the wild during the night. While escaping, she killed Eli Mills, fighting over his body with a Carnotaurus; several Compsognathus also scavenged the scraps. She did not directly encounter the hybrid Indoraptor, which had been the impetus for the auction, but did unintentionally crush the Indominus bone sample that was planned to be used to engineer more of the animals.

It is not known if the San Diego Zoo houses any of the other escaped dinosaurs, but the tyrannosaur appears to be a resident there (if a problematic one for the zoo staff). She appears to have developed a rivalry with a male lion in an adjoining exhibit.

Portrayal
A 1993 Kenner-made toy card refers to Tyrannosaurus rex as being nicknamed “Gulper,” though it is unclear if this is meant to be a nickname for the entire species.

The tyrannosaur was portrayed using a combination of animatronics and computer-generated imagery. Her portrayal in Jurassic Park and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom utilized both, while her appearance in Jurassic World was entirely portrayed in CGI. She is loosely based on the adult Tyrannosaurus from Michael Crichton‘s 1990 novel. However, her survival at the end of the film was director Steven Spielberg‘s idea, as the animal dies in the novel.

She is nicknamed “Rexie” in the novel, which is reflected in her film-canon name Rexy. In the original film, production notes refer to her as “Roberta,” which is never used in the film canon.