Henry Wu (formerly Dr. Henry Wu) is a Chinese-American evolutionary geneticist known for his groundbreaking research into genetic engineering. He was famously employed by International Genetic Technologies, Inc. from 1986 until late 2015, during which time he worked on both the failed Jurassic Park and successful Jurassic World de-extinction theme parks. He is also famous (and controversial) for his research into artificial genetic hybridization, a field of genetic engineering that Wu and his InGen staff largely pioneered.
His work into hybridization was a major factor in the success of de-extinction in the late 1980s, as he proved that donor genes can be spliced into ancient DNA in order to repair damage that had occurred due to radioactive decay of DNA molecules. However, these hybridized animals sometimes displayed unexpected biological traits that were not present in their ancestral forms. This led Wu to research practical applications of this result; by 1997, he and his staff had succeeded in creating an artificially-engineered species of flowering plant, Karacosis wutansis. His work would yield several artificial genera of animal by 2015, including the Indominus rex which was successfully bred in 2012. Wu’s work into hybridization has always been considered controversial, and resulted in a legal investigation by the U.S. Congress in late 2015 and 2016. Following these investigations, Wu was stripped of his doctorate credentials. He became a fugitive of the law, though he continued his research while in hiding.
Henry is a name of Germanic origin, deriving from Heimirich and translating to “ruler of the home.” The Chinese surname Wu comes from a state in what is now the province of Jiangsu; its literal translation is “Gateway to Heaven.” It is unknown how long Wu’s family has lived in the United States, but obviously his first name is not historically Chinese. It has become common practice for many immigrant families to the United States to choose European given names for their children in order to discourage bigotry from people of European descent.
Henry Wu was born in the state of Ohio. His date of birth is unknown, but the actor chosen to portray him, BD Wong, was born in 1960. Wu was an only child, and from an early age, he was considered a prodigy. During the 1960s, research into genetics was an emerging science, and the young Wu would have likely become interested in an exciting new subject such as this.
He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the most prominent institutions in the United States; during the late 1970s and early 1980s, its acceptance rate was around 33%. His undergraduate thesis was extremely well-received and gained him nationwide attention. Wu graduated from MIT in 1986 with a PhD in genetics. Assuming that he spent four academic years each on his undergraduate and graduate studies, he would have begun his undergraduate studies in 1978 and began his graduate studies in 1982.
Dr. Wu was hired by a genetics research and development company, International Genetic Technologies, directly out of MIT shortly after his graduation in 1986. His exemplary performance during both his undergraduate and graduate years had caught the attention of InGen’s CEO Dr. John P. A. Hammond and his business partner Sir Benjamin Lockwood, who had founded the company in 1975 and spent the past four years working on a secretive genetic engineering project based out of the Lockwood estate‘s sub-basement laboratory.
Wu was brought on board almost immediately, taken to the secluded Site B research facility on Isla Sorna, Costa Rica. There, he learned the truth behind InGen’s research: it was de-extinction, the resurrection of extinct organisms using sophisticated cloning techniques. InGen, however, was not cloning recently-extinct species such as the woolly mammoth; they had far more ambitious goals. InGen was bringing dinosaurs back from extinction. The results were to be displayed in a grandiose theme park, called Jurassic Park, which was slated to open in the mid-1990s on the nearby island of Isla Nublar.
The company’s lead paleogeneticist, Dr. Laura Sorkin, had already proven the previous year that ancient DNA (or aDNA) dating back to the Mesozoic era could be retrieved and used to fertilize artificial ova in order to bring back these extremely ancient animals. The DNA was obtained from the blood meals of ancient mosquitoes found in Mesozoic amber. However, the process was not simple, nor was it easy. While at-the-time-unknown means had extended the half-life of the DNA molecules, the process of radioactive decay had still rendered them too damaged to yield viable specimens. As a result, Dr. Sorkin had to cross-reference dozens of aDNA samples, hoping that they would yield complementary fragments of DNA that could be pieced together to result in a complete genome. This would have been complicated by the fact that not every sample would come from the same species, and that the size of an organism’s genome and the damage sustained over time could cause some segments to remain undiscovered. These complicating factors meant that it could take years for Dr. Sorkin and the other InGen geneticists to create viable specimens.
Dr. Wu devised a solution to InGen’s problem. The genomes of nearly all organisms include large amounts of DNA that are identical to one another, since all life on Earth shares common evolutionary ancestry. Roughly half of the human genome, for example, is identical to the genome of the banana plant, which is located quite far away on the phylogenetic tree. The solution to InGen’s problem was clear to Dr. Wu; rather than collect hundreds or thousands of amber samples in order to get enough DNA from a single species to reconstruct its genome from random fragments, the missing genes could be replaced with compatible genes from other species. So long as the genes selected from donor species were identical to those that were missing, the result should be a viable organism. InGen allowed Wu to test his hypothesis, and he reconstructed a complete genome in a fraction of the time taken using Dr. Sorkin’s method.
In 1986, InGen succeeded in bringing back its first prehistoric animal: Triceratops horridus, a horned dinosaur from the late Cretaceous period of North America. Hatched on Isla Sorna, this creature marked the beginning of a new era for genetic science and for InGen. With his methods proven effective, InGen began reconstructing genomes at a breakneck pace and bringing back several other new species. Brachiosaurus was cloned during these early days, and it was followed by other animals such as Parasaurolophus as well as plants such as a Cretaceous veriforman.
Dr. Wu’s successes at InGen did not stop here. Security concerns were paramount on the Jurassic Park project, including the possibility that animals might escape InGen’s facilities. This would be disastrous, as it could leak InGen trade secrets into the wider world, or cause incidents that might otherwise harm the company. To solve this problem, Dr. Wu stepped up again. He devised a method to prevent the animals from surviving outside of InGen facilities by engineering them to be reliant on lysine supplied in their diets. A single faulty enzyme in protein metabolism ensured that, without weekly lysine supplements provided to them, the animals would become comatose and die. This was implemented by InGen despite Dr. Sorkin’s bioethical protests, and accepting the lysine contingency as a part of Jurassic Park became company policy that all new employees were required to agree to. To further promote security at Jurassic Park, Dr. Wu suggested engineering all Park animals to be female by preventing the developmental conditions that result in vertebrate embryos becoming male. This, like the lysine contingency, was implemented by InGen; with an all-female population in the Park, unwanted breeding would be a non-issue. Overall, Wu’s methods saved InGen time, effort, and money, and improved the Park’s integrity.
Dr. Wu’s work greatly impressed Hammond and the Board of Directors, and he was promoted in favor of Dr. Sorkin. Now, Wu was InGen’s chief geneticist, in charge of the department. His contributions to de-extinction now included theropod dinosaurs, such as the famous Tyrannosaurus rex which was first hatched in 1988. That year, the first animals were shipped from Isla Sorna to Isla Nublar to be exhibited in Jurassic Park. A laboratory was constructed within the Visitors’ Centre in Jurassic Park, though it was much smaller than the Isla Sorna facilities, and Wu began to spend time here as well as on Site B. During this time, he most likely lived part-time in the Workers’ Village on Isla Sorna and in the Staff Village on Isla Nublar.
In the early 1990s, Dr. Wu succeeded in cloning Dilophosaurus. He completed its genome by filling in the gaps with genes from the yellow-banded poison dart frog (Dendrobates leucomelas), which integrated successfully into the dilophosaur genome. However, the resultant animal had numerous unexpected traits, such as extendable cowls and venom glands. Some have suggested that these are the result of gene splicing and are not natural traits, though soft-tissue traits such as these rarely are visible in fossils. Dr. Wu attempted to use D. leucomelas DNA as the donor source while engineering Velociraptor, but this was not successful; on September 20, 1991 he reported that embryos 4x, 6x, and 7x failed due to karyolysis. Wu was able to remedy this by changing the source of the donor genes to the common reed frog (Hyperolius viridiflavus), which integrated successfully and yielded viable Velociraptor embryos. Because of this success, Wu began using H. viridiflavus as a gene donor in many de-extinct species.
Velociraptor, however, would prove to be a problematic animal. As the juveniles grew, they began to exhibit surprisingly intelligent social traits as well as aggressive behavior. On February 13, 1992, Wu worked with Park warden Robert Muldoon to observe the growing raptors, discovering that they developed a form of social hierarchy and high levels of collective intelligence. These traits concerned Muldoon, who believed that the raptors’ intelligent behavior made them a potential security risk. Likewise, Dr. Sorkin considered the raptors to be a liability, and also noted that their anatomy was drastically different from their fossil ancestors (a discrepancy she attributed to Wu’s genetic engineering methods). Wu, however, did not appear to take his colleagues’ concerns seriously and continued with his work. Around this same time, Lockwood left InGen due to bioethical disagreements with Hammond, putting financial strain on the company.
By 1993, the InGen species compendium included sixteen de-extinct animals (as well as a few which were left off official documents) and eleven animal species that were not yet considered viable. Several of these had already been introduced to Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar, including the aggressive Velociraptors. A pride of eight animals was introduced to the raptor paddock, but sometime in early 1993 a particularly dominant individual caused a violent restructuring of power in the hierarchy; the bloodbath left five animals dead, with only three surviving. The new leader led her subordinates in coordinated attacks on the paddock’s electric fences whenever Park employees came to deliver food. Muldoon noted that the animals never attacked the same place twice, concluding that they were testing the fences for weaknesses. At his urging, the three raptors were relocated to a holding pen, while replacements were shipped in from Isla Sorna.
During the relocation in early June, the raptors attacked and mauled to death a worker named Jophery Brown. This brought construction on Jurassic Park to a halt as Brown’s family threatened to sue InGen for his death. Wu’s work was stalled, the Board of Directors putting a hold on further development until a team of outside experts could be brought to tour Jurassic Park and give it their endorsement. In the meantime, Hammond began to doubt whether the Velociraptors were compatible with the Park environment, and ordered Herrerasaurus (one of Wu’s more recent creations) to be shipped to the island as a replacement.
On June 11, 1993, the endorsement tour personnel arrived to Isla Nublar along with Hammond. These included InGen’s legal advisor Donald Gennaro as well as three American scientists: mathematician Dr. Ian Malcolm, vertebrate paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant, and paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler. Wu was working in the lab at the time of the tour and briefly met the scientists, who entered the lab along with Dr. Hammond in order to see this part of the de-extinction process. A Velociraptor hatchling emerged while they were present, prompting Wu to explain their population control methods. This was met with skepticism from Dr. Malcolm, who asserted that the animals would develop a means to breed even with InGen’s restrictions put in place. Wu dismissed this as unscientific nonsense. Grant, too, was skeptical of the Park after seeing the hatchling raptor, recognizing that this animal’s social behavior and high intelligence could make it a potential security risk.
Around 7:00pm local time, Wu departed Isla Nublar on transport ship C-3208 along with most of the Park staff to take shore leave for the weekend in Costa Rica. A skeleton crew was left on the island along with Hammond and the endorsement tour members, the assumption being that the Park’s automation would keep it running even with minimal staff. However, during the evening of June 11 shortly before the boat departed, communication with Isla Nublar was cut off; the boat departed the East Dock before the issue was considered serious.
Communication with Isla Nublar remained down overnight, and was not restored until the morning of June 12. When communications were reestablished, Hammond reported to the company that the Park had been sabotaged by chief programmer Dennis T. Nedry and that multiple staff fatalities had occurred due to animal attacks. Hammond was the only staff member to survive, along with most of the endorsement group. The Park was deemed unrecoverable, despite the best efforts of staff and endorsement tour personnel to save it.
Aftermath of the incident
The 1993 incident on Isla Nublar ended a major era in Dr. Wu’s career, but he did not leave InGen. Instead, he doubled down on his research while the company struggled to recover from financial disaster. Throughout 1994, InGen conducted research on Isla Nublar and Isla Sorna to learn the status of assets on the islands. The operation also intended to determine the reasons why some of Wu’s protocols had failed, including the lysine contingency and population control methods. Wu learned, likely from Dr. Grant’s testimony, that the Velociraptors had bred. He suspected that since this was the main species in which he had utilized H. viridiflavus DNA, the choice of gene donor had been the cause. In October of that year, InGen documented proof that the raptors had indeed bred, and that the lysine contingency had not had any effect.
Wu joined the cleanup operation in November, helping to catalogue specimen numbers. While all the DNA samples on Isla Nublar had been lost due to sabotage and deteriorating conditions in the neglected facility, living and dead animals could still be used for research. Wu determined that the animals that had bred all included H. viridiflavus DNA, strongly suggesting a link between the two. He determined that he had neglectfully utilized segments of DNA that coded for protogyny in the frogs, which had translated into the dinosaurs changing sex from female to male and successfully breeding. He documented his findings in a December 7, 1996 update of InGen’s asset catalogue which was published after the 1994 cleanup operation. The fact that the raptors’ biological attributes had been not only altered but enhanced by gene splicing fascinated Wu, and he began research into more practical applications of this process.
In 1995, Wu published a book about his research entitled The Next Step: An Evolution of God’s Concepts. That same year, Dr. Malcolm had violated his nondisclosure agreement and spoken publicly about Jurassic Park, but was dismissed as a fraud. Nonetheless, Wu’s book was heralded as a prophetic vision of the future of genetics. In it, he described using the process of genetic hybridization to create new species of organisms. In his own words, it would be “much like selective breeding within domestic animals, but with this, we would be combining several species into one new animal. Today’s technological limitation means we are decades away from achieving this, maybe even fifty years away, but who knows, hopefully in my lifetime we could see it become a reality.”
By that time, change had come to InGen. Hammond had protected Isla Sorna from corporate exploitation since the 1993 incident, and in 1995 it was abandoned due to Hurricane Clarissa. Having teetered on the verge of Chapter 11 bankruptcy for years, the company’s future was put in peril again by another lawsuit. In December 1996, a young British girl was wounded by a pack of Compsognathus on Isla Sorna, and her wealthy parents were preparing to sue InGen after discovering that they owned the island. This was the final straw for the Board of Directors, who fired Hammond for his neglect and lack of leadership. Peter Ludlow, Hammond’s nephew, succeeded him. Ludlow does not appear to have provided much for Wu’s research into genetic hybridization, instead focusing on a plan to resurrect Jurassic Park’s original location in San Diego to save the company. This plan was put into action possibly as early as February 21, involving an expedition to Isla Sorna.
Ludlow’s attempt to complete Jurassic Park: San Diego was foiled by Hammond himself. Hammond had sent a counter-expedition to Isla Sorna to prevent animal assets from being raided and brought to San Diego, but Ludlow still managed to collect a male tyrannosaur and its offspring. Due to unforeseen circumstances, the adult was accidentally released into the city in the early morning, where it presented visceral evidence that Jurassic Park was not a hoax and that the stories leaked by Dr. Malcolm were true. During the events of that morning, Ludlow was killed during an attempt to recover the juvenile tyrannosaur, leaving InGen leaderless.
Early hybridization research
By mid-May of 1997, Wu and his team in Costa Rica had successfully accomplished what Wu had considered decades away a mere two years ago. By combining the genes of multiple plant species, they were able to create a new genus and species of flowering plant which was presented to the International Society of Geneticists. On May 21, the ISG named the species Karacosis wutansis in honor of the leader of the genetics team that created it. Hammond was not well enough to leave his home in New York and see Wu’s accomplishment, which saddened Wu. Though Hammond was unable to see the plant, it still gathered worldwide attention. Among those intrigued by the hybrid was Simon Masrani, the CEO of Masrani Global Corporation and son of Hammond’s late friend Sanjay Masrani.
During his final months, Hammond collaborated with the United States government to write up the Ethical Negligence in Paleo-Genetic Resurrection Bill, better known as the Gene Guard Act. This bill was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives within the year, and placed heavy restrictions on de-extinction research. 1997 also saw a bidding war begin for InGen, with Masrani Global and Tatsuo Technology being among the major players. Hammond himself passed away at the end of 1997, having dedicated the final days of his life to establishing legal protection for Isla Sorna and Isla Nublar and their de-extinct inhabitants. With de-extinction now known to the public, Dr. Wu was able to speak more openly about his work; at some point before 2004 he was prominently interviewed by The New York Times. In this profile, he described how he was changing the field of genetics, and how his research was changing him just as much.
Though Hammond had shielded Wu from legal inquiries into his work, the Gene Guard Act ensured that Wu could not legally continue his research. InGen was bought by Masrani Global in 1998, saving the company from shutting down. With this new leadership in place and new resources at his disposal, Wu was able to seek ways to pursue his research outside the law. Between 1998 and 1999, starting within one hundred days of the buyout, work recommenced on Isla Sorna. For a period of nine months, animals were cloned on the island, subject to expedited growth rates other unhealthy conditions. The results were filed under “Early R&D for Jurassic Park’s second incarnation” and also “Amalgam Testing.” The former confirms that plans to rebuild Jurassic Park were put into action almost immediately, while the latter implies that Wu continued his research into hybridization during this period of illegal activity. The results of this work included at least four new genera being cloned; InGen scientists completed the Corythosaurus and Ankylosaurus genomes, while building those of Ceratosaurus and Spinosaurus from scratch.
This illegal research was closed down after nine months due to fears of discovery. It is not currently known how much Wu was directly involved with this operation, but an archived email from him in the Masrani Global website backdoor has been recovered and appears to refer to this period of time (he references early research into hybridization and an “accident” abandoned on Isla Sorna). Although the illegal operation was wrapped up without being discovered by the authorities, the United Nations granted Masrani Global Corporation limited access to Isla Sorna that year anyway, and work into the new version of Jurassic Park came underway within the confines of the law. Simon Masrani renamed it Jurassic World in October of that year.
In August of 2000, Wu’s researchers Bridges and Curtis used a prototype iron analyzer to study a Mosasaurus fossil, determining that it contained recently-discovered iron structures that were responsible for prolonging the survival of DNA molecules. These iron structures had been the reason that amber samples from the Mesozoic still contained viable DNA, and it was now determined that fossils could contain viable aDNA as well. This greatly expanded Wu’s ability to perform de-extinction.
December of that year saw Wu promoted within InGen, becoming the lead genetic biologist and an official part of the Jurassic World project. He was tasked with continuing to perfect the animals’ genomes through genetic research, in a capacity the law would permit. An international incident on Isla Sorna the following summer resulted in American security contractor Vic Hoskins being hired as InGen’s new Head of Security; Hoskins and Wu would eventually develop a mutually beneficial working relationship. In 2002, Jurassic World’s opening date of May 30, 2005 was announced, and in April, InGen landed on Isla Nublar to begin the process of taming the island.
Wu continued his genetic research in a limited capacity, held back by legal restrictions. On February 20, 2003, he discovered more ways that his genetic engineering techniques had altered the biology of his Velociraptors. The genes which regulated feather development were effectively shut down by the existence of a null allele. Manipulating the raptors’ genes by filling gaps with DNA from modern animals had resulted in this unexpected mutation. While this was frustrating for Wu as it prevented him from perfecting his animals without starting from scratch, it did provide him with more knowledge that he could use to better his technique in the future. He finally caught a break in March, when a Masrani Global representative made a case before the U.S. House Committee of Science to reduce restrictions put in place by the Gene Guard Act. The rollback was passed in part due to bribery. Cloning and genetic engineering were now permitted again, allowing Wu to resume his work as before.
In early 2004, the process of reintroducing dinosaurs to Isla Nublar began. The illegal cloning on Isla Sorna in the late 1990s had tipped the balance of the already-precarious ecosystem into full collapse, and to prevent the loss of valuable assets, Masrani Global Corporation began collecting animals and bringing them to Isla Nublar. This began with the brachiosaurs, including two which had been shipped to Isla Sorna during the early phases of Jurassic World’s construction. To supervise this process, InGen brought in a group of interns in a secretive program. Wu appears to have been displeased with these interns, referring to them as a “trainwreck” in conversation.
The process of building Jurassic World was far from easy. The animals’ health was a key concern, and to bolster their skeletal and dental health, a calcium-boosting supplement was added to the central valley’s water sources. Despite their efforts, health issues still affected the dinosaurs. The two brachiosaurs were found to be suffering from abscesses of the esophagus, which veterinarians removed. The island was briefly evacuated on March 5 due to a severe storm; an intern voluntarily remained behind during the evacuation to protect a dinosaur in poor health, but died in a vehicular accident while trying to reach the docks. As a result, the internship program was closed down, the incident covered up at the order of Simon Masrani. With a potential legal and public relations disaster averted, Wu could continue his research unhindered.
At the time, his main goals were to complete genetic reconstruction on certain species. This included animals with non-viable genomes (such as Mosasaurus), as well as those which were viable but could use improvement (such as Baryonyx). He also worked to ensure the health of new animals arriving to the island from Isla Sorna, as many of them developed abscesses similar to those that affected the brachiosaurs. The cause was still unidentified, frustrating staff. Cocktails of steroids and antibiotics were administered to all new animals, including those bred in the lab, to try and prevent the mystery illness.
Wu also began the process of breeding new versions of animals for Jurassic World. The first of these were Pteranodon; he created a new version of this pterosaur by 2004, with the first generation consisting of twelve eggs. In August, the Bright Minds internship program commenced, with twelve promising college students being selected to intern in Jurassic World. Wu hand-picked three interns to monitor the Pteranodon eggs as they developed; these included political science student Claire Dearing, botany student Tanya Skye, and a third intern named Wyatt whose father was a Masrani Global board member. Of these, he considered Dearing and Skye to be the most promising, though he was dismissive of the interns in general. Over time, he became fonder of them, particularly Dearing’s analytical skills. Eventually, she determined that a strain of cyanobacteria on the island had been mutated into a highly acidic form, which Dr. Wu reasoned was the result of a mutagen forming from a combination of the calcium supplements in the water sources and igneous rock that naturally occurred on the island. He later learned from Simon Masrani that this was the cause of the dinosaurs’ throat abscesses. With this knowledge, the disease could be prevented.
Another incident occurred on September 8, the day the first Velociraptor was brought to the island. Two of the interns, including his own Tanya Skye, were found to be corporate spies for one of Masrani’s many rivals; they were caught by Dearing and another intern named Justin Hendricks breaking into the quarantine pen where the raptor was being held. In the ensuing incident, the raptor escaped and mauled Hendricks to death. Wu sympathized with Dearing over this loss, the events reminding him of the coworkers he had lost during the 1993 incident. He advised her to learn from the tragedy just as he would, using this painfully-earned knowledge to inform her future decisions. By this time, he was so impressed with her analytical skills that he believed she could one day run Jurassic World itself if she stayed determined.
Jurassic World opened on schedule despite setbacks, and was considered an immense success upon its launch. Wu, now free to discuss his history with de-extinction within company guidelines, became something of a celebrity scientist and one of Jurassic World’s major spokespeople. He frequently appeared in promotional videos for the park, being as prominent as Simon Masrani himself. Wu’s preferred intern, Claire Dearing, was also hired by the company and rose through the ranks at an astonishing rate to eventually become the park’s Operations Manager.
Although the park was considered a runaway success, the Board of Directors grew wary that the public would eventually become acclimated to dinosaurs. However, new attractions had consistently resulted in spikes in attendance. In a board meeting on April 4, 2008, the Board and Simon Masrani unanimously decided that a bold new attraction would increase guest numbers and keep the park financially viable. Masrani and Dearing authorized Dr. Wu to accomplish this by any means necessary; in an email, Masrani instructed Wu to engineer something “cooler” than any animal they had cloned before. Wu determined that hybridization would be the best route to take, as this could yield unforeseen results.
Dr. Wu began working with his team on a new hybrid genus, this time going back to his roots by modifying dinosaurian genomes. By 2009, he had produced a result that impressed Simon Masrani, and by 2012, he succeeded in hatching an entirely artificial genus and species: the Indominus rex. Two were bred for redundancy purposes, the duplicate increasing the probability that at least one of the experimental animals would survive. This theropod started with a tyrannosaur genomic template, modified with structural genes from various other theropods. These donors were selected to give the resultant animal increased metacognitive abilities, large muscular arms, increased size, and bony osteoderms on its head and body. Modern animals were sourced for traits including infrared output modulation, infrared sensing, opposable thumbs, and the ability to survive rapid growth; the animal also demonstrated chromatophores allowing it to quickly change the color of its body, which may or may not have been intentional.
In 2012, he also assisted with InGen’s I.B.R.I.S. Project by engineering a new variant of Velociraptor designed to be more compatible with training regimens. Four specimens survived and were deemed suitable: Blue, Delta, Echo, and Charlie, all genetically modified by Dr. Wu personally. A second and more classified project, overseen by Dr. Svetlanda Mashir at the North Mount Sibo Genetics Centre, also began in early June. Wu met on June 10 to discuss the project’s results with Dr. Amelia Everett, the computational genomicist working under Dr. Mashir. She reported that they had completed mapping the Velociraptor genome, and that they were now proceeding with protein isolation and live trials. A raptor had been hatched with its mesotocin expression elevated via gene suppression, and it was responding well to conditioning. Wu was impressed with Dr. Everett’s work, promoting her above Dr. Mashir and putting her in charge of the NMS Centre’s raptor project.
While the Indominus was being created, Dr. Wu had been approached by InGen’s Head of Security Vic Hoskins with a proposition. Hoskins had foreseen the financial plateau that Jurassic World was now facing, and also expressed concerns that the United States was losing its military superiority in the technological arms race. Hoskins had publicly advocated for the I.B.R.I.S. Project to test the raptors’ potential as military animals, but in private, also suggested to Dr. Wu that the Indominus could be engineered as such. This project was funded by Benjamin Lockwood’s financial aide Eli Mills without Lockwood’s knowledge or consent. Hoskins hoped to benefit by producing a custom-made military animal that would give the U.S. Armed Forces the edge they needed, while Wu would benefit by having his research funded with Lockwood money provided by Mills. In exchange, Mills would receive a cut of the profits when Hoskins turned to sell the result. Wu agreed to these terms, eager to have his work funded in ways that Jurassic World might not be able to provide forever. This secretive project was known by a select few, including InGen Security’s Head of Special Ops, Kurt Reed, who was also involved with I.B.R.I.S.
Meanwhile at the NMS Centre, the raptor project was reviewed by Simon Masrani on June 2; it was also highly secretive, with only Wu, Masrani, and the Centre’s Genomics staff being in the loop. Not even Hoskins was aware of this project’s existence, much like how Masrani was unaware of the truth behind the Indominus. Masrani was pleased with the progress NMS staff had made and signed off on the operant security measures for a trial installation. This involved the creation of two new raptors to join the first; he approved the proposition to have these new raptors’ growth inhibited via gene suppression so long as they, like the original, were kept strictly secret and not revealed to the public yet. Around a year later, on July 3, 2014, Wu presented Masrani with a demonstratory incubation at the NMS Centre to showcase their progress. He failed to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Everett, taking all the credit for himself. This angered Dr. Everett, who had a vocal argument during a July 7 meeting with Dr. Wu about her desire to be credited. Wu refused to grant her this, describing her work as just that: her having done her job, and deserving no extra praise for it. Many of Wu’s coworker relationships seem to have soured during this period of his life as his own ego inflated further and further.
All the while, InGen continued to expand its genomic library. This was bolstered by efforts around the globe, such as the Martel facility in Siberia which came under construction in 2012 and was completed November 15, 2014. With facilities such as this in use extracting animal remains from sources such as permafrost and peat bogs, InGen possessed the world’s largest genomic library by 2014. Wu presided over much of this operation, and while he denied in 2015 that InGen intended to clone extinct Cenozoic life forms, he left the option open if the public was interested enough. In March of that year, Wu penned an article advocating for the use of InGen’s genomic library to benefit pharmaceutical research carried out by Medixal Health. This article was published professionally in a scientific journal.
Indominus was revealed in January of 2015, ostensibly as a new park attraction. As predicted, it caused a surge in online ticket sales when it was announced, even though most of the public only knew that a new theropod would be unveiled at the end of the year. However, the animal’s genetic makeup was largely kept a secret; not even Operations Manager Claire Dearing or CEO Simon Masrani were permitted to know the full details. Only Wu and Hoskins, and presumably some of the genetics staff, knew all the contents of the animal’s genome. This led to difficulties in managing it, as its growth rate exceeded expectations and its aggressive behavior caused numerous security concerns. One of the animals cannibalized the other, leaving just a single survivor. In the meantime, Wu continued research into genetic hybridization with funding from the Lockwood Foundation, creating hybrid animals of various species. He bred several small hybrid animals, but his dinosaurian creations such as the Stegoceratops remained conceptual; no living specimens have been reported.
He also had his final meeting regarding the NMS Centre raptor project this year, on May 30. It was not strictly about the raptor project itself, but rather Dr. Everett’s behavior; Wu claimed that she had gone behind his back to meet with Simon Masrani and obtain the recognition she desired, a claim that Dr. Everett denied. Nonetheless, Wu assured her that he would report her to the Board of Directors, and that if disciplinary action was deemed necessary, the Board would contact her. However, this never happened, suggesting that the Board found no evidence that Dr. Everett had committed an act of insubordination or that disciplinary action should be taken. He would not speak to Everett again for nearly three years.
Details about the Indominus, including its appearance and attributes, were not revealed yet; Wu was aware that rival corporations would be highly interested in stealing his data, so he kept it closely guarded in his private office. On December 20, his field research lab was toured by part of the Camp Cretaceous group, much to his chagrin; he was pestered by the teenagers’ questions, and they would not stop touching things. During that tour, a premature Ankylosaurus hatched with asymmetrical skull structure, something that Wu had strove to prevent. On top of this development, he discovered one of the campers, Brooklynn, investigating his private office and ordered them all kicked out. She had come alarmingly close to discovering classified details about the Indominus, endangering the secrecy of Wu’s research.
Despite the concerns voiced by staff about the Indominus, Dearing continued to support it, as did Masrani (though the latter was unable to see the animal due to other business obligations). On December 22, 2015, Wu assisted Dearing with convincing Hal Osterly and two other representatives of Verizon Wireless to sponsor the Indominus exhibit, suggesting that safety concerns had not managed to reach outside of InGen. Simon Masrani arrived to see the Indominus on this same day, admiring its appearance and bold behavior but also recognizing the safety threat it posed. While Wu was not present for these events, the animal’s subsequent escape prompted Masrani to confront Wu about the animal’s unexpected abilities.
Dr. Wu defended his work against Masrani’s accusations, attempting to explain the hybrid’s abilities as the natural result of its genetic sources (even if some of these abilities were more than originally anticipated). Wu called the deaths “unfortunate,” but showed no real signs of remorse for his complicity. In spite of Dr. Wu’s protests, Masrani promised to shut down Wu’s research and bring legal retribution for the deaths his creation had caused. While Masrani headed operations to kill the animal and save the park from further carnage, Dr. Wu retreated to his lab to shield his work from corporate investigation.
Hoskins, on the other hand, wanted more extreme measures taken to protect the fruit of their labors. He enlisted InGen Security personnel to removed Wu’s embryos and research material from the island altogether, predicting that the park would face Chapter 11 bankruptcy within a day and that legal investigation would inevitably uncover their work. During the incident, Masrani was killed in the attempt to stop the Indominus; this gave Hoskins the opportunity to take control while Wu had his research materials removed from the lab. By that night, most of his equipment and specimens had been removed, and he was evacuated from the island by helicopter. While boarding, he was surprised and concerned to see that Hoskins was not joining him; an InGen contractor explained that their deal was still intact. The reluctant and suspicious Dr. Wu was evacuated from Isla Nublar, leaving his partner behind. Hoskins would not survive the incident.
Life on the lam
Dr. Wu was evacuated to the Lockwood estate, where Mills sheltered him from the law. Much of his equipment and many of his specimens were safely delivered to the estate, where they were installed into the sub-basement laboratory where Hammond, Lockwood, and Dr. Sorkin had originally pioneered de-extinction. His deal to get his research funded was still in place, as had been promised, but the plan was now much simpler without Hoskins’s patriotic input. The operation was now simply to engineer military animals and sell them to any party willing to pay up. To assist with this, Mills imported geneticists from labs around the world to form a new team working under Dr. Wu.
In the public eye, Wu had fallen from grace. Claire Dearing had discovered the conspiracy between Hoskins and Wu and, acting as a whistleblower, brought it to public attention. In late December, Dearing spoke at a public testimonial regarding the incident, attempting to shift blame away from the animals and onto Dr. Wu and InGen Security. As a result of her testimony, Dr. Wu was brought under investigation along with all of InGen for bioethical misconduct. Since he was in hiding, he was unable to represent himself during the trial. A paper trail was eventually discovered which exposed InGen’s illegal activities on Isla Sorna during the late 1990s, further strengthening the case against Dr. Wu.
Three months after the incident, U.S. Congress opened up further inquiry into bioethical misconduct perpetrated by Dr. Wu and corruption of the Gene Guard Act in 2003. The U.S. government raided laboratory facilities used by Wu, confiscating many of his specimens including all Indominus DNA samples. However, Wu himself was not found. He was stripped of his credentials, losing his PhD and the title of Doctor.
Despite losing his credentials and most of his specimens, Wu did not stop his research, nor did Mills cease supporting it. He provided remote assistance to the remnant of I.B.R.I.S. being carried out by Kurt Reed in Chile, forwarding the program. Hoskins and Wu had planned to create a refined evolution of the Indominus, but without its genome, Wu would be unable to do this. However, he was aware of one source of Indominus DNA the government had not seized: the corpse of the escaped specimen, which now lay at the bottom of the abandoned Jurassic World Lagoon. Mills hired a team of mercenaries to obtain a sample, and in June 2016, the team succeeded with heavy casualties. Wu’s involvement with the I.B.R.I.S. operation in Chile ended at around this time, since Reed and many of his staff died during a mission on Isla Nublar.
With a new Indominus DNA sample in the form of a bone cutting, Wu was able to resume his work in the Lockwood sub-basement laboratory. In accordance with his original plans with Hoskins, he refined the Indominus genome by increasing the proportion of Velociraptor DNA and swapping out some of the functional genes sourced from modern animals. The resultant animal was smaller, slimmer, and theoretically more suited to social behavior. A prototype of this new genus, which Wu named Indoraptor, was bred sometime during or after 2016. It showed signs of extreme intelligence and strategic planning, making it an ideal military animal. Wu and Mills managed to train it to respond to visual and acoustic stimuli; a modified rifle could be used to aim a laser sight at a target, and at the issuing of a high-pitched signal, the animal would attack.
The prototype was not perfect, however. While it was healthy enough to survive into adulthood, it suffered from behavioral problems. Wu analyzed its behavior to discern the cause. He determined that the animal lacked empathy, though there are signs that it was also mistreated by the security personnel Mills hired to watch it. The prototype became aggressive, using its intelligence to outwit its handlers; on one occasion, it faked unconsciousness while a light was being changed in its cage in order to kill one of Mills’s technicians. Wu did not order the animal euthanized despite its behavior, keeping it alive to study.
At first, Wu hypothesized that the prototype’s aggressive and antisocial behaviors could be remedied by altering the genotype, specifically the Velociraptor donor. The raptors bred at the North Mount Sibo Genetics Centre in the early 2010s had elevated levels of mesotocin, which encouraged social behavior. Wu instructed Mills to assemble a team to retrieve genomic data from the NMS Centre; using this data Wu would be able to replicate the genetic alterations in the NMS raptors. This operation departed on February 17, 2018, but ran into problems fairly quickly. Wu was surprised to be contacted by his old employee Dr. Everett, who he had left on bad terms in 2015, who reported that she was one of two survivors of Mills’s extraction team and in need of rescue. Wu initially refused, but agreed to send help when Everett promised him the data. Though it was retrieved by midnight, Mills and Wu changed the terms; Mills had demanded additional compensation to make up for the high risk of this mission. Another DNA sample was requested, this one belonging to the oldest (and only surviving) I.B.R.I.S. Project specimen, Blue. According to the lead I.B.R.I.S. trainer Owen Grady, this raptor had demonstrated the greatest amount of empathy out of all those Wu had bred, making her an ideal candidate for the next generation of Indoraptors‘ gene donor. Furthermore, the genes from the black-throated monitor in her genome enabled parthenogenesis, an easy way for Wu to mass-produce Indoraptors. Despite this change to the terms, Everett had no choice but to comply, obtaining Wu the sample from the NMS Centre’s vault.
Wu developed his behavioral hypothesis further. While using Blue’s DNA and the NMS project’s modifications rather than that of a more average Velociraptor was promising, he believed that some of the prototype’s behavioral problems were a result of lacking a parental figure. If he could obtain a suitable surrogate parent for the next generation of Indoraptors, it might be possible to encourage more positive social behaviors. Since they were going to be augmented with Blue’s DNA, the solution was obvious: Blue herself was the most ideal surrogate mother. If she raised the new specimens, they might assume her desirable traits.
The project was increasingly expensive, and Mills grew tired of waiting for results. In order to fund the creation of more Indoraptors, as well as obtain Blue to act as a surrogate mother for the next generation, Wu and Mills needed to get to Isla Nublar and to find a new source of income.
Salvation came to Wu’s financial trouble from an unexpected place. His former coworker, Claire Dearing, had become a de-extinct animal rights activist in the intervening years, founding the Dinosaur Protection Group in March 2017. Throughout that year, the island’s volcano Mount Sibo had become active for the first time in nearly five hundred years, showing signs of a violent eruption building. Dearing and the DPG were advocating for the island’s de-extinct creatures to be relocated to a safe haven, and Lockwood supported their cause. Mills masterminded a plan to take advantage of his employer’s support for the DPG, providing assistance to Dearing but bringing the dinosaurs to the Lockwood estate and selling them on the black market instead. During this operation, Blue could also be retrieved for Wu. To further their goals, the prototype Indoraptor could be used during the planned auction to advertise to potential buyers.
This plan was carried out in June of 2018. The U.S. Congress voted to take no action regarding the ecological crisis on Isla Nublar, and Lockwood immediately summoned Dearing to his estate to discuss his illegal rescue mission with her. She accepted the invitation, and Mills managed to convince her to recruit Grady to help obtain Blue. Along with Grady, Dearing also brought DPG paleoveterinarian Zia Rodriguez and former Masrani Global IT worker Franklin Webb. They left for the island in the early morning of June 23, with Mills’s team of mercenaries having landed on the island by means of helicopter as well as Lockwood’s ship the S.S. Arcadia some days prior to this.
The operation did not go completely as planned. While more than enough animals were captured to fund the next generation of Indoraptors, Blue attacked a mercenary during her capture and was shot, sustaining life-threatening injuries. Wu was furious with Mills for not explaining to the mercenary team the importance of Blue remaining alive, and frustrated that Mills himself did not understand why Blue was absolutely necessary. Fortunately, Blue’s life was saved by Rodriguez, who performed a xenotransfusion with the Tyrannosaurus to treat her shock and blood loss. Wu was unaware of this, learning only that Blue had survived her brush with death.
But Wu’s difficulties were now far from over. While Rodriguez was still Mills’s captive and held in the lab, Webb’s location was unknown, and both Grady and Dearing had escaped the island with their lives. The auction commenced without issue, with several dinosaurs being sold to international buyers; at the halfway mark, auctioneer Gunnar Eversoll exhibited the prototype Indoraptor. In spite of his assurances that the animal was not ready to be sold, Russian mobster Anton Orlov placed a bid on the creature. Mills allowed bidding on the prototype to continue, which angered Wu; while Mills assured him that they would profit enough to breed more Indoraptors, Wu knew that his creation would go open-source if sold. Wu stormed out of the auction and to his lab.
Blue and Rodriguez had been transported to the laboratory, and Wu intended to extract blood samples from Blue right away to immediately begin working on the next generation of Indoraptors. While he was making preparations, he was alerted to the fact that the auction had been disrupted by Grady and Dearing after they escaped the animal holding cells below the lab. Anticipating disaster, Wu promptly began evacuating the lab. His geneticists and technicians, aided by Mills’s security staff, collected specimens and equipment to remove to safety. Wu entrusted the Indominus bone sample to one of Mills’s security members. He instructed Rodriguez to obtain blood samples for him, but she refused, also revealing the xenotransfusion to Wu. This operation, while it saved Blue’s life, meant that her blood was contaminated and could compromise the engineering of future Indoraptors. His shock was cut short by Webb, who had been mistaken for a lab technician and conscripted into work; Webb assaulted Wu with a tranquilizer dart of carfentanil, sedating him. Wu was evacuated in an unconscious state by one of Mills’s security personnel.
While Wu was unconscious, the prototype Indoraptor was accidentally freed by Wheatley and killed him as well as several mercenaries and guests. Rodriguez and Webb released Blue to defend themselves against other mercenaries in the lab, and a tank of hydrogen gas was ignited in the ensuing firefight. Blue would go on to kill the Indoraptor while defending Grady. The explosion in the lab caused a hydrogen cyanide leak, threatening to kill the animals that had not been sold; they were released into the wild by Lockwood’s granddaughter Maisie. Lockwood himself had been murdered by Mills before the auction, having learned the truth about it from his granddaughter. When the frightened animals fled the estate, Mills and two of his security staff were killed, and the bone sample was destroyed.
Wu’s current whereabouts are unknown.
Wu is an evolutionary geneticist, having obtained a PhD in genetics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Being accepted into such a prestigious institution, and graduating on track with a doctorate degree in a field that was still quite new at the time, makes it clear that Wu’s comprehension of genetics has been cutting-edge for all of his adult life. Wu has a detailed understanding of both animal and plant genetics, and presumably of other organisms such as bacteria. He was hired out of MIT by InGen almost immediately after graduating in 1986 and spent the next twenty-nine years demonstrating his skill. Rapid changes in technology influenced his field in that span of time, but his accomplishments also led to advances in that technology.
He was a major player in the history of de-extinction, developing gene splicing methods that allowed ancient genomes to be reconstructed much faster than using conventional techniques. His methodology did result in unexpected traits in the organisms, such as protogyny in Velociraptor, but without his techniques many species would never have been cloned at all. Wu’s breakthroughs in gene splicing were refined over the next decade, culminating with his 1995 presentation of the idea that utterly unprecedented forms of life could be created through gene splicing. Wu and his team would accomplish this by 1997 with the creation of Karacosis wutansis, which was recognized by the International Society of Geneticists by May 21.
From then on, Wu continued to research the potential of gene splicing. Using new scientific techniques as they developed, he had by 2009 proven to his employers that his methods were completely sound. He had greatly reduced the rate of unexpected traits occurring in his organisms, which had already contributed to the success of the Jurassic World theme park. This increased precision in his work allowed him to synthesize his most complex hybrid yet, a theropod he named Indominus rex. This animal was originally intended to be a park attraction, but was affected behind the scenes by corruption from InGen Security. Vic Hoskins, Head of Security, convinced Wu to engineer I. rex to be highly combat-capable as a proof of concept for military bioengineering.
During this time Wu continued work into de-extinction, completing dozens of new genomes and engineering new versions of species they had already created. This did not come without setbacks; he was unable to overcome issues presented by null alleles occurring in many of the theropods, leading to the affected animals being incapable of developing feathery integument. However, most of the new creatures he engineered were created with better precision and great speed, especially after the development of the Hammond XB-20 gene sequencer.
Indominus rex gave rise to a second genus of combat-ready theropod, the Indoraptor, which Wu engineered while hiding from the law after being accused of bioethical misconduct. At this point, he was working for a private venture off the books rather than for a company, and his result was not what he had hoped. However, he was able to develop a hypothesis to explain the failure, and reasoned that future Indoraptors could socialize and learn empathy if they were raised by a parental figure of close genetic relation. He was unable to test this hypothesis, however.
As with all scientists, Henry Wu has had both successes and failures. Several of his accomplishments at Jurassic Park later turned out to be failures, including the lysine contingency and population control methods. He was able to discern the reason that the population control had failed (the donor DNA he used in his splicing techniques included functional genes that he was unaware of), but not the reason behind the lysine contingency’s failure. His genetic engineering techniques have resulted in organisms that include traits he did not originally anticipate, though he rigorously studies these results to determine the cause and can usually succeed at this.
Wu also researched other uses for genetics. In 2015, he wrote an article detailing how InGen’s immense genomic library and genetic research could be used to benefit medical research being performed by Masrani Global subsidiary Medixal Health. He reported in a scientific journal that non-coded DNA had been traced back to its source in ancient diseases (possibly retroviruses). This allowed InGen to research prehistoric and historic epidemics and better combat disease in the present day.
A deep understanding of genetics goes hand-in-hand with general knowledge of biology, and Wu has background in a wide range of biological fields. He has learned much about the links between animal genetics and their behavior and physiology, much of it discovered through witnessing firsthand the effects that various genetic alterations have on his specimens. This necessitates a strong background in embryology, as Wu had to pay close attention to his specimens’ development to discern how his genetic engineering practices had affected them. This was of particular importance to his population control methods, which required all Park-bound dinosaurs to be female as to prevent breeding. He stated that he accomplished this by preventing any stimulus that would result in male development, since all vertebrate embryos are “inherently female.” This is a simplification of actual embryology and sex development, but it worked sufficiently as an explanation of his methods. He is also capable with various biology lab procedures such as phlebotomy, which is necessary in his field.
Wu also has some knowledge of how his creations would live as grown adults, although he did not study them extensively in the field. He did participate in an observation of maturing Velociraptors alongside Park warden Robert Muldoon in 1992, noting their complex social structure and cognitive abilities. In 2018, he demonstrated an understanding of the Indoraptor prototype’s psychology, hypothesizing that its lack of familial bonds resulted in it never developing a sense of empathy.
His knowledge of animal biology beyond genetics is imperfect, though. Prior to 1994, he was unaware of the fact that Hyperolius viridiflavus is capable of protogyny, a fact which undermined his efforts at population control in Jurassic Park. He was also unaware that animals obtain lysine in their diet naturally, which caused the lysine contingency to fail. His hybrid animals, Indominus and Indoraptor, were raised in insufficient conditions as well; this suggests that Wu did not know what their habitat needs would be, and that he failed to recognize the poor quality of their habitats after they were raised in them. This may have contributed to the aggressive behaviors exhibited by both animals. Wu shows signs of inexperience working with live adult animals, visibly recoiling from an aggressive raptor in a cage and sending lab technicians to interact with it rather than attempting to perform these tasks himself.
Public speaking and authorship
Wu’s undergraduate thesis at MIT gained nationwide praise, beginning his lifetime of experience engaging with a wider audience. His next major public engagement was his 1995 nonfiction book, The Next Step: An Evolution of God’s Concepts. This book was well-received by the scientific community and was praised for its visionary look at the future of genetics. Two years later, Wu would make headlines with his creation of the first artificial genus and species, Karacosis wutansis, though this would be overshadowed shortly after by the revelation that de-extinction was real. This, of course, was also largely Wu’s accomplishment, and would have made him even more of a public figure.
Despite the controversy surrounding de-extinction from 1997 onward, Wu was generally viewed in a positive light by scientists and science enthusiasts until late 2015. He worked to promote Jurassic World during its time of operation, often appearing in promotional videos for Masrani Global Corporation and the park itself. He became a celebrity scientist, more accessible than the mysterious and deceased John Hammond and known for explaining complex concepts of genetics to the public. He has also responded to media inquiries about his work, and was a good judge of the public’s interest. For example, he originally intended the Indominus rex to appeal to the public, and when it was revealed, ticket sales to Jurassic World skyrocketed. He also denied that InGen was seeking to clone Cenozoic life forms, but implied that if the public showed enough interest, they would look into this possibility seriously. He also maintained an understanding of what Masrani Global’s investors were interested in, using this knowledge to convince representatives of Verizon Wireless to sponsor the Indominus rex exhibit.
During his many years as a respected scientist, Wu also published in scientific journals, particularly regarding InGen’s genomic library and the purposes it could be used for.
While Wu is skilled at public presentation, he is often considered less amicable in person. Over the years he has become less inclined to work well with others, working instead to increase his own accomplishments and reputation as a scientist. He was known to act against the interest of his company’s leader Simon Masrani and rarely acknowledged the contributions of his lab staff. He has also frequently had vehement disagreements with his co-conspirators Vic Hoskins and Eli Mills, despite his depending on them for funding.
Wu does not always appear to have exhibited these traits. During his time at Jurassic Park, he got along very well with his employer Dr. John Hammond, and he appears to have been saddened by his coworkers’ deaths in 1993. He did show disregard for his coworker, Dr. Laura Sorkin, and her opinions. In earlier memos regarding his research, he frequently acknowledged his laboratory staff members’ accomplishments and appeared respectful of their skill as scientists. Over time, particularly with the success of the Indominus project in 2012, Wu has gradually become less social and less tolerant of his fellow human beings. When the Jurassic World incident occurred in 2015, he showed no signs of remorse despite his culpability in the events, referring to the deaths caused by the Indominus as merely “unfortunate.” Coworkers and colleagues in the present day often describe Wu as arrogant and egotistical despite his likable public persona.
Wu does not appear to currently have any close friendships and is not known to have ever had any romantic relationships. All of his relations with other people are for purposes of business.
On scientific discipline
Wu’s approach to science is firmly rooted in the pursuit of accomplishment and attaining knowledge for its own sake. He does not adhere to the precautionary principle by any means, instead choosing to contend with problems as they arise. This can cause setbacks to his work, but as he has traditionally relied on the wealth of his employers, he does not habitually consider the consequences of his work to be obstacles to continuing it. Instead, Wu views unintended results of his scientific methodology as opportunities. For example, when his use of H. viridiflavus as a donor of what he assumed was “junk” DNA led to the creation of dinosaurs capable of protogyny, Wu took this failure as a chance to research the applications of gene splicing. This ultimately led to him being able to engineer new genera of plants and animals using methods that had once been accidents.
Throughout history, legal restrictions have been placed on genetic engineering, such as the Gene Guard Act of the late 1990s and early 2000s. Wu has, since the Act was passed into law, shown disregard for such restrictions. He considers scientific achievement to be paramount, shunning legal or societal opposition and performing research by whatever means he considers most effective. This has resulted in serious legal consequences; in early 2016, he was found guilty of bioethical misconduct regarding the Indominus project and was stripped of his credentials. Despite this, he has continued his research while in hiding and still shows great pride in his accomplishments. He appears to firmly believe that accomplishment transcends morality, and this shows in his work. Some of his employers, such as Eli Mills, have taken advantage of this and funded the creation of dangerous organisms by playing to Wu’s desire for accomplishment.
While he is considered an exceptional scientist, his methods can be sloppy when he rushes to achieve results. Many of the phenotypic anomalies in Jurassic Park’s dinosaurs are a result of this, such as the abnormal size of the Velociraptor and the uncharacteristically scaly skin of his theropod specimens. He has generally avoided discussing abnormalities in his animals, but on some occasions has remarked at their unique new traits as a form of artificial evolution. He sometimes fails to consider unknown variables in complex environments, which can also lead to unexpected outcomes that negatively impact his work.
The maintenance of an enormous artificial ecosystem on Isla Nublar led to numerous such situations, some of which have been quite severe. For example, when dinosaurs were being reintroduced to the island in 2004, water sources in the central valley were expanded and calcium supplements were added to the water. The calcium solution reacted with igneous rock to form a previously unknown mutagen, which generated a highly acidic mutant strain of cyanobacteria. This harmed dinosaurs drinking from the water source containing the mutant strain, but Dr. Wu did not realize the cause. He also did not determine why his lysine contingency failed in 1993, with the obvious-in-hindsight cause being discovered independently by Dr. Sarah Harding in 1997.
Since he has a background in evolutionary genetics, Wu has studied the natural world and finds much of his inspiration there. However, he does not subscribe to chaos theory, instead holding a belief that nature can be completely defined and therefore manipulated and controlled. Wu views this as a positive thing, considering nature to be a tool that scientists can use to better the world, and dismisses the idea that nature is an inherently moral entity that should not be altered. In line with his understanding of evolution, he views nature as perpetually in flux and considers human intervention to be a part of that process of change.
Wu also believes that nature itself, not just human life, can be improved upon. This is the basis of his research into genetic engineering. Initially, he worked with InGen to recreate extinct forms of life, which he considered to be beneficial from both a scientific and naturalistic perspective (since organisms once lost were now returned to the world). However, he discovered that many of his creations were biologically distinct from their original forms, having been altered by his gene splicing techniques. This led him to develop more advanced methods of genetic engineering, culminating with the success of artificial species genesis via hybridization on the genomic level. He is now capable of creating viable life forms that would not have evolved on their own, considering this process to be a step up from selective breeding and the future of evolution.
When creating life forms, Wu does not always welcome unexpected mutations. Evolution is, of course, fueled by such random events, but when Wu seeks to direct the path of evolution he does not make room for unplanned changes. Some of these end up unintentionally improving his work, but he views others as mere imperfections. In Jurassic World, he is implied to have eventually started terminating embryos that displayed anatomical abnormalities. As of 2004, he kept alive a Pteranodon embryo with one polydactyl wing, but as of 2015, he considered asymmetrical skull structure in an Ankylosaurus to be distasteful and was angry that this mutation was not caught by his screening.
Wu views the creation of new life, particularly new apex predators, to be beneficial to nature; apex predators are especially beneficial because they provide a check to human population growth. Wu takes no issue with animals hunting and killing humans. However, he is not above engineering life forms to act in ways that benefit humans, such as his plans to create Indoraptors that demonstrate loyalty and empathy and could work alongside humans.
Wu has not made outward statements of religious belief. However, his 1995 book The Next Step: An Evolution of God’s Concepts heavily suggests that he holds, or at least held at the time, some belief in a deity or other superior being. It is possible that, like some of his fellow scientists, he equates the idea of God with nature (or, in Wu’s case, the process of evolution by natural selection). He does not have a traditional system of morality, instead considering natural processes to be indicators of right and wrong. This may suggest some form of Social Darwinist belief, though he has not made any statements to directly confirm it.
Although he appreciates the scientific accomplishments of humanity and the benefits that civilization provides to his work, Wu’s view of humanity on the whole is not a positive one. Over time he has shown less social interaction in his personal life, reducing his relationships with others to purely businesslike ones. Even as early as the 1990s, Wu showed signs of a superiority complex when viewing other people; by 2015, he showed very little empathy toward others. Whether this was because of a changing political climate, his personal accomplishments and resultant changes to his self-image, or other factors remains unknown.
Whatever the cause, Wu’s scientific ambition was clearly of supreme importance to him by 2015, at which point he showed more pride in the success of the Indominus than he did remorse or shame at the fact that it had caused the deaths of several Jurassic World employees. His genetic engineering projects from 2008 onward have included at least two which were designed deliberately to harm humans; the Indominus was a proof-of-concept for the idea of military bioengineering, while the Indoraptor was initially designed for use in the military-industrial complex and ultimately intended to be sold to the highest bidder for purposes of warfare.
This is not to say that Wu demonstrates actual misanthropic tendencies. He does, in fact, value the scientific pursuits of the human species and respect the accomplishments of those before him. Wu considers technology a powerful asset even if it gives humans an unfair advantage in the evolutionary arms race, and embraces new technologies. He views all forms of artificial evolution, including selective breeding, as an art form. Wu has shown respect for the work of other scientists, though he has little patience for people who are less intellectual or learned than himself. He does, however, show interest in educating the public on topics that he is knowledgeable in, if only because this presents him the chance to demonstrate his expertise. Overall, his view of humanity is of an animal with potential, a driving force in nature rather than separate from it, but not as superior as some people believe. He is not against the idea of apex predators keeping the human population in check. In his own words, referring to accusations that the Indominus was a monster: “Monster is a relative term. To a canary, a cat is a monster. We’re just used to being the cat.”
Dr. John Parker Alfred Hammond
In mid-1986, shortly after graduating from MIT with a PhD in genetics, Dr. Wu was offered a job with International Genetic Technologies. There, he began working under its CEO at the time, Dr. John Hammond, who had spent the past few years preparing for the world’s first de-extinction theme park and resort. Wu became a part of this secretive project and quickly impressed Hammond by developing cost-saving solutions to many of InGen’s challenges. Less than a year after he was hired, Henry Wu was promoted to chief geneticist.
Between 1986 and 1993, Hammond and Wu worked closely together on the Jurassic Park project and found a deep respect for one another. Hammond was highly appreciative of Wu’s contributions to Jurassic Park, and Wu admired Hammond’s ambitious vision. The two men became friends and stayed on good terms through the struggles InGen faced during the project. When dinosaurs were bred in the Isla Nublar hatchery, Wu would notify Hammond of upcoming hatches, knowing that his employer would not want to miss any.
During the weekend of the 1993 incident, Wu had already left the island after helping describe the security measures implemented through genetic engineering to Hammond’s special guests. While the Park itself was a failure, Wu did not consider his own work to be, and neither did Hammond; during the mid-1990s, Wu continued to be a major player at InGen and helped the company research some of the biological factors contributing to the Park’s downfall. In 1997, InGen lost faith in Hammond, but he and Wu remained friends. Wu had by then begun research into artificial species genesis via genetic hybridization; his work was carried out at InGen facilities on the mainland now, and unfortunately Hammond was not healthy enough to come and see Wu’s new accomplishments. Wu is known to have expressed regret that he and his former employer could not share in scientific discovery again. Hammond did, however, shield Wu from legal consequences following the public learning about de-extinction that year.
Hammond’s dying act was to help pen the Ethical Negligence in Paleo-Genetic Resurrection Bill, which placed sanctions on Wu’s research by barring further de-extinction studies and obligating InGen to care for the life it had already created. There is presently no evidence that Wu’s desire to continue research affected Hammond’s decision to help write this bill, or that Hammond took Wu into consideration at all during its writing. Nonetheless, InGen geneticists likely including Wu violated the terms of the ENPGR Bill a year after it was written. Wu has not discussed Hammond much in public or in private in recent times, so his memories of his first longtime employer are largely kept to himself.
Sir Benjamin Lockwood
Along with John Hammond, one of the founders of InGen was the British billionaire philanthropist Benjamin Lockwood, who was involved with the Jurassic Park project when Wu was hired in 1986. While much of Lockwood’s role in the project has been swept under the rug, he is known to been involved in the early stages of de-extinction and probably worked closely with Wu as Hammond did.
Sometime prior to the summer of 1993, Lockwood and Hammond parted ways due to serious bioethical disagreements. Lockwood believed that InGen’s technology could be used for human cloning, a controversial medical topic, while Hammond vehemently opposed this. Even though it was Lockwood who endorsed the more liberal use of cloning and genetic science, Wu stuck with Hammond when Lockwood left the company. This suggests that Wu was not as close with Lockwood as he was with Hammond, even though Lockwood’s bioethical opinions were more in line with Wu’s own.
When Wu returned to Isla Nublar to work on the Jurassic World project, some of his research was probably funded by the Lockwood Foundation. By the early 2010s, Lockwood was involved with Jurassic World’s owner Masrani Global Corporation. Wu’s hybridization research was funded with Lockwood’s fortune, though Lockwood’s aide Eli Mills was largely responsible for this. When this turned sour during the 2015 Jurassic World incident and Wu became a wanted man, he spent three years hiding in Lockwood’s sub-basement with the help of Mills; there is no evidence that Lockwood was aware that Wu was living in his home. Lockwood was murdered on June 24, 2018 without having ever confronted Wu directly after Wu’s fall from grace.
Dr. Laura Sorkin
When he was first hired onto the Jurassic Park project, InGen had already employed Berkeley paleogeneticist Dr. Laura Sorkin a year prior. It was Sorkin who first proved that ancient DNA could be recovered from prehistoric amber samples, having demonstrated it at the Lockwood estate in 1985. However, reconstructing an entire extinct organism’s genome was an expensive process that consumed large amounts of resources and time. To build a complete genome, InGen scientists would have to collect hundreds or even thousands of amber samples containing blood-engorged mosquitoes from the same time period, extract DNA from all of the samples, and cross-reference them to obtain 100% of the genes of the target species. Wu, in 1986, proved that there was a much faster and less expensive way to do this: instead of using conspecific DNA, he could simply use the so-called “junk” DNA from other species to replaced the decayed segments in a partially-reconstructed genome.
Dr. Wu was favored over Dr. Sorkin by InGen because of this and other accomplishments. Due to his success over her, Sorkin became resentful of Wu as the project went on. She viewed his methods as sloppy and unscientific, particularly when they began to result in animals with markedly different anatomy and physiology from their fossil ancestors. Sorkin took to the field, performing research to find the root causes of such alterations and remedy them using further genetic engineering. Her lack of contribution to the Jurassic Park project, as she focused more and more on correcting Wu’s mistakes, caused her to lose relevance at InGen.
Sorkin took several opportunities to voice her complaints to Wu, such as his abnormally large Velociraptors and visually-impaired Tyrannosaurus rex, but he dismissed her points. Both scientists had little tolerance for the other, considering one another egotistical and arrogant. By 1993, Sorkin was actively working against Wu and InGen policy, developing an adenovirus-based cure for Wu’s lysine contingency and releasing it into Isla Nublar’s water sources. While Wu left the island during the weekend that the 1993 incident occurred, Dr. Sorkin did not, remaining on the island and resisting rescue attempts. She died during the incident, but her efforts at ending the lysine contingency were never properly made known, so Wu was still baffled by the dinosaurs’ survival until another explanation (natural dietary sources of lysine) was presented.
Sorkin, like many unfavorable aspects of InGen’s past, has been omitted from summaries of the old Park and company history. This has played to Wu’s favor, giving him a larger amount of credit for de-extinction rather than having to share it with the late Dr. Sorkin.
In May of 1997, Dr. Wu and his staff succeeded in creating the first-ever artificial hybrid species, Karacosis wutansis. This caught the attention of Indian tech mogul Simon Masrani, CEO of Masrani Global Corporation, and sparked his interest in buying InGen. The CEO’s father, the late Sanjay Masrani, had been a friend of Wu’s employer John Hammond for many years; Hammond and Simon Masrani were also close, and Wu may have known Masrani prior to 1997. Despite the incidents at Isla Sorna and San Diego, Masrani maintained interest in purchasing InGen and making it a Masrani Global subsidiary, and won a bidding war for the company in 1998.
It is unclear how much Masrani and Wu worked together between 1998 and 2000, but they most likely cooperated in some capacity. Both men were invested in opening Jurassic Park, and Wu at least is believed to have violated the law in performing de-extinction research and development between 1998 and 1999 with the explicit purpose of rebuilding the Park. In December 2000, Masrani officially brought Wu on board this project, the Park rechristened Jurassic World.
Between 2000 and 2015, Wu and Masrani developed a close working relationship similar to that he had once had with Hammond. At this stage in life, Masrani was much like Hammond had been during the early 1990s; enthusiastic and visionary, willing and eager to push boundaries, though plagued with the naïveté that can afflict wealthy philanthropists. By this time, though, Wu had grown older and more experienced, and his treatment of their relationship was more professional and businesslike. Jurassic World was more of a corporate venture than Jurassic Park had been, and it was hardly Simon Masrani’s only business obligation. While Masrani’s attention was focused heavily on Jurassic World in the early 2000s, he eventually spent more time with other areas of the corporation. This often left Wu in charge of Jurassic World’s scientific developments, and Wu took advantage of this to further his research without hindrance. Although Masrani was Wu’s superior, Wu had no problems with voicing complaints to Masrani in ways that typical employees would never dare. Wu was fully aware of his vital importance to Jurassic World and came to believe that he was beyond rebuke.
In 2008, Masrani had a hand in authorizing Wu’s hybrid research. The corporation’s Board of Directors agreed on April 4 that the best way to counteract the decreasing difference between Jurassic World’s revenue and expenses was to create a hybrid animal as a new attraction, since this would be radically different from any previous attraction at the park (or in the world). With the full authorization of the Board, Masrani, and Senior Assets Manager Claire Dearing, Wu began studying hybridization as it applied to animal life. The result was the creation of the Indominus rex, the first viable specimens of which hatched in 2012. Wu’s comments regarding the hybrid’s creation later suggest that he felt his potential was unrealized by Masrani, but Masrani appears to have been unaware of Wu’s frustrations.
Masrani was thrilled at Wu’s success, but was only able to hear about it remotely. For several years he was unable to visit Isla Nublar as he traveled the world working with other divisions of his rapidly-growing company. Between 2012 and 2015, Wu was left to operate more or less as he wished, and his research grew tremendously (helped by funding from the Lockwood Foundation, provided by Eli Mills as arranged by Head of InGen Security Vic Hoskins). Masrani was finally able to see the Indominus on December 22, 2015 after months of delays; he was highly impressed with Wu’s results, but acknowledged security concerns that staff had raised about it.
When it was discovered that the Indominus had biological capabilities Masrani had not known about or requested, such as chromatophores enabling it to rapidly camouflage and the ability to modulate its thermal output, he confronted Wu. Masrani was baffled as to why the dinosaur had these abilities, and angered at how aggressive and intelligent the creature had been designed to be. Wu justified his choices in the organism’s design by claiming that he had acted entirely within the terms of Masrani’s requests. After discovering that Wu could have predicted the hybrid’s aggressive behavior and supposedly-unexpected abilities, Masrani declared Wu a traitor to the company’s mission and vowed to shut down his research and turn him over to the authorities. Masrani then set off himself to kill the Indominus, but did not survive the attempt. This left Wu and Hoskins with a brief window of time to get Wu and his research off Isla Nublar and to the Lockwood estate before corporate and governmental investigators came to the island.
Seven months after Wu was promoted onto the Jurassic World project, an incident occurred on Isla Sorna that released three genetically-modified Pteranodons from the aviary and threatened to expose the illegal research performed there during the late 1990s. While the threat of exposure was quelled through government bribery, the flying reptiles made their way to Victoria, British Colombia where they posed a danger to civilians. This risked generating bad press for InGen before Jurassic World was even publicly announced. American security contractor Vic Hoskins was hired to neutralize the animals, and with Simon Masrani impressed at his efficiency, Hoskins was hired to fill the position of Head of Security at InGen.
Wu had more experience with de-extinction than Hoskins, but the newcomer learned quickly. Wu’s many creations provided him and the Asset Containment Unit he was in charge of with many opportunities for experience, beginning when they landed on Isla Nublar in April of 2002 to begin the process of taming the island for Jurassic World’s construction. From 2003 onward, Wu was legally allowed to research de-extinction and develop new species again, which introduced more new species to Isla Nublar which Hoskins would have had to train ACU to deal with. Each animal had unique security needs, so the more Wu developed, the more versatile Hoskins’s ACU became.
Hoskins was deeply concerned with the state of warfare and the future of the United States on the battlefield. With drone technology becoming commonplace, the American military appeared poised to win the arms race, but Hoskins had his doubts. Drones, he believed, would eventually be hacked or retroengineered by enemy nations; furthermore, developing technologies such as electromagnetic pulse devices could theoretically render drones useless. For answers, Hoskins turned to Wu’s hybridization research. In April 2008, Wu had been authorized to create a new species of dinosaur to draw crowds to Jurassic World. Hoskins, knowing that Wu would take any opportunity to grow his studies in other ways, offered him such a chance. Hoskins proposed that Wu use the in-development Indominus rex as a proof-of-concept for military bioengineering, designing the animal to be combat-ready and capable of evading current military technologies. In exchange, Wu’s research would be funded by the Lockwood Foundation, arranged by its manager Eli Mills. Wu accepted the terms of Hoskins’s deal.
Wu also developed a new breed of Velociraptor for the I.B.R.I.S. Project, an InGen Security study which sought to better understand the animals’ psychology. This was ostensibly to find ways to integrate raptors into the park, but Hoskins intended to test the raptors’ aptitude for military work in the manner of other animals such as dogs or dolphins. This began in 2012, the same year that the Indominus hatched; Wu was chiefly involved with the Indominus, while Hoskins was publicly involved only with the raptors. Behind the scenes, Hoskins was fully aware of the hybrid animal’s unique capabilities; only he and Wu were fully aware of its true purpose. While the creature was not exactly suited for military use, Hoskins believed that by reducing its size and increasing its social propensities, they could make later versions into the perfect military animal.
While they worked in a mutually-beneficial arrangement, Hoskins appears to have trusted Wu much more than Wu trusted Hoskins. During the 2015 incident, Wu expressed doubt and concern over Hoskins’s choices on several occasions. When Hoskins insisted that they evacuate their work off the island, Wu seemed to believe he was overreacting; Wu did not immediately assume that any investigation into the lab was likely. Despite their disagreements, they were never seen to become openly angry with one another, and their differences seem to have been kept mostly to themselves.
Hoskins did not survive the 2015 incident, being killed after a failed simultaneous field test of both I.B.R.I.S. and the Indominus. When Wu was evacuated by InGen Security, he seemed anxious about leaving without Hoskins. As he could not be reached for comment, it is unclear whether he was worried about his partner’s safety or suspecting that Hoskins had betrayed him. He was concerned with whether their deal was still intact, which InGen personnel confirmed. After Hoskins’s death, Wu was moved to the Lockwood estate and attempted to complete their project under the direct supervision of Eli Mills.
Henry Wu met Claire Dearing in the summer of 2004 when the latter was only an intern in the Bright Minds program, a political science student and animal rights supporter from an East Coast university. At the time, Wu had been largely unimpressed by Masrani Global’s interns; the first internship program had been such a disaster that its existence was actually covered up. Dearing was among the few interns who Wu considered to have any real potential at all. While he was mostly dismissive of her skills, he admitted that she had some degree of foresight and therefore was of some possible value. Of all the interns, she was one of three who he chose to monitor the eggs of a new Pteranodon breed, along with botanist Tanya Skye and the son of a Masrani Global board member named Wyatt.
During the summer and early fall of 2004, Dearing had investigated a mysterious illness afflicting certain herbivorous dinosaurs in the island’s central valley. She built off of the prior research performed in secret by an intern named Isobel James, who had died in a vehicular accident in early March. She eventually discerned the cause: calcium-supplement liquids that had been added to the valley’s water sources had reacted with igneous rock in one of the small lagoons, compounding to create a mutagen that afflicted a strain of cyanobacteria found there. This mutant strain exuded highly acidic fluids, harming dinosaurs that drank from the water. Wu himself had not realized this, and was astonished that the young Dearing had solved a problem he could not. This impressed him, and he finally admitted his genuine respect for her skills. Around the same time, there was an incident in which another intern whom Dearing had grown attached to was mauled to death by a Velociraptor, and Wu made a rare show of empathy. The incident, and Dearing’s reaction to it, brought back memories of the events of 1993, in which several of Wu’s close coworkers lost their lives.
Dearing was hired by Simon Masrani personally after the summer of 2004 and she rose through the ranks of Masrani Global with incredible speed. By 2007, Dearing had become one of the higher-ranking members of park administration, the Senior Assets Manager. As the staff member in charge of monitoring all animal assets at Jurassic World, she would have worked closely with Wu to keep track of all new hatches and ongoing research. Dearing equalled Wu in rank after becoming not only Senior Assets Manager but also the park’s Operations Manager. Despite her rank, they appeared to have a mutual understanding that Wu’s long-time experience at InGen and unmatched skill with genetic engineering made him deserving of respect. Dearing appears to have treated Wu as an equal, though Wu by that time considered himself superior to his coworkers.
In early 2008, Dearing was one of the staff members who authorized Dr. Wu to use whatever genetic engineering means necessary to create a new, unprecedented Jurassic World attraction to bolster visitor numbers. Wu’s answer to this was the Indominus rex, an artificial genus and species of theropod dinosaur created through gene splicing. Even though Dearing had authorized its creation and was in charge of park operations, Dr. Wu did not disclose all of the animal’s genetic sources to her or other senior staff members, keeping this information classified. This may have been at the behest of his partner in business Vic Hoskins, who had bribed Wu into engineering the creature to be a prototype military animal.
This secrecy led to the nearly-mature Indominus escaping its enclosure in 2015, though Dearing did not blame Wu for the incident. In fact, earlier that same day, they had cooperated to convince the Vice President of Verizon Wireless to sponsor the hybrid’s upcoming exhibit. The animal had been a potential security risk for some time, and Dearing had taken measures to ensure additional safeguards were in place, but Wu’s refusal to disclose details of the creature’s physiology meant that there was no way Dearing or ACU could have been fully prepared to handle it. As a result, it escaped and caused numerous fatalities across the island.
Dearing suspected Hoskins having a hand in the disaster, but believed that he had merely wanted a field test of the I.B.R.I.S. raptors. When she and her nephews, as well as InGen Security animal behaviorist Owen Grady, were in danger, Dearing suggested they shelter in Wu’s lab. It was there that she learned directly from Hoskins that Wu was culpable in the disaster due to having engineered the Indominus as a biological weapon at Hoskins’s orders. After surviving the incident, Dearing became an outspoken critic of Wu, urging the U.S. government to bring him to justice. She was instrumental in Wu being stripped of his credentials and becoming a wanted man, guilty of bioethical misconduct.
Although she and Wu were now enemies, she was manipulated into helping him further his genetic engineering research in 2018. By that time, she had founded the Dinosaur Protection Group and was advocating for the dinosaurs’ safe relocation from Isla Nublar to a safe haven. Wu, who was currently hiding out at the Lockwood estate, needed a means to fund his research in order to modify and breed more of his latest creation, the Indoraptor. To facilitate this, Eli Mills convinced Dearing to participate in an illegal rescue operation on Isla Nublar; the operation was actually a sham, with the “rescued” dinosaurs brought to the estate to be auctioned off on the black market. Dearing’s allies disrupted the auction, and later that night were responsible for the prototype Indoraptor‘s death. Mills also died during the incident, depriving Wu of his funding; Wu’s lab and most of his specimens were destroyed during these events.
Henry Wu has had a long career in genetic engineering, beginning at International Genetic Technologies after graduating MIT in 1986. Within months of being hired, Wu demonstrated such skill at genetic engineering that he was promoted to chief geneticist. He had competed for the position with Dr. Laura Sorkin, who had been hired a year prior, and was ultimately favored over her. Only one employee is known to have remained entirely loyal to Dr. Sorkin, her research assistant David Banks. InGen’s Board of Directors made it very clear during a 1993 inspection that they valued Dr. Wu’s research dramatically over Dr. Sorkin’s; by that time, they considered the latter barely an asset to InGen.
During the Jurassic Park project, Wu was mainly seen in the lab; it does not appear that he ventured into the field with regularity. Nonetheless, since he was the architect of the Park’s biological assets, he would have cooperated at times with InGen’s veterinarians. The Park’s chief veterinarian was Dr. Gerry Harding, who appears to have respected Wu’s work. He also worked closely on some occasions with the Park warden Robert Muldoon, with whom he researched Velociraptor behavior in 1992. However, when Muldoon raised security concerns about these animals and proposed that they all be euthanized, Wu did not comply and continued breeding them. Other higher-ups in the company included chief engineer Ray Arnold and chief programmer Dennis Nedry. Wu’s relationships to them are mostly unknown, but Nedry was responsible for the 1993 incident which seriously hindered Wu’s career for the next four years.
During his time on the Jurassic Park project, Wu’s working relationships appear to mainly have been with his lab staff. These included other geneticists, biologists, and technicians. Wu appears to have gotten along with them well enough, as the lab was seen running in excellent condition at the time of the incident in 1993. His relationships with other coworkers outside the lab were more limited, but no complaints about Wu were brought up by employees other than Dr. Sorkin during that time. Wu’s egotistical personality traits showed in his dismissive attitude toward some of his coworkers’ security concerns, such as Muldoon’s, but there does not seem to have been ill will between them as a result.
Despite the 1993 incident, Wu was still kept on at InGen amidst a severe financial crisis. He worked together with InGen’s researchers and investigators to discern some of the reasons why their attempts at control on the island had failed. Even though Wu was found to have made mistakes in his genetic engineering techniques, he was still considered a highly valued employee; when the company changed hands from Hammond to his nephew and successor Peter Ludlow, Wu was kept on with his own research lab in Costa Rica where he studied genetic hybridization. While Ludlow’s efforts mostly focused on Jurassic Park: San Diego and Henry Wu remained friends with Hammond, Ludlow’s choice to keep Wu on the team demonstrates his understanding of his best scientists’ value to the company.
Wu may have been involved with the 1998-1999 operations on Isla Sorna, which were performed in violation of the law. Personnel involved with these events are currently unknown, but most likely included those employees who were most dedicated to Wu’s research efforts. During the early 2000s, work on Jurassic World was underway; Wu collaborated with a growing number of corporate scientists and researchers on this project. He credited many of his coworkers with the new park’s success, such as InGen’s researchers Bridges and Curtis, who discovered how to retrieve viable aDNA from fossil remains other than amber.
Jurassic World involved more than just InGen. It incorporated experts from all of Masrani Global Corporation’s subsidiaries, and Wu benefited from this. His laboratory would have been built by Timack Construction, while Tatsuo Technology provided him with cutting-edge equipment that he used to further his studies. Even Masrani Energy benefited his work, as it sometimes discovered rich sources of aDNA while excavating for fossil fuels. His work benefited other Masrani Global subsidiaries as well; Medixal Health was known to use genetic decoding to trace DNA sequences left in the human genome by ancient infections to predict epidemic patterns in the modern day. Wu’s coworkers included scientists such as Dr. Christopher Reddy, one of InGen’s senior geneticists, and Dr. Sylvia Nurren, the biocurator of InGen’s enormous genetic library. He employed numerous young lab technicians and budding scientists, some of them recent PhD graduates such as Dr. Ryan Crest. Overall, Masrani Global’s workforce was young, and so was Dr. Wu’s lab staff. He also employed interns on some occasions, though he was not easily impressed by them. Wu’s work affected all aspects of park operations, so even employees that he did not interact with were heavily influenced by him. For example, he did not appear to work much with ACU, but the animals he engineered each had unique security needs that ACU would have to learn to provide. He also engineered a new breed of Velociraptor for use in the I.B.R.I.S. Project; it is likely that he worked with the project’s lead animal handlers, Owen Grady and Barry Sembène, in some capacity. As of 2004, the park’s lead herbivore trainer was a woman named Bertie, whom Dr. Wu described as very good at her job; she was one of the few coworkers that Dr. Wu showed genuine respect for.
According to Jurassic World: Evolution, Wu had some history with Hammond Foundation Science Division leader Dr. Kajal Dua, and the two had an antagonistic relationship to one another. Other leaders of the Hammond Foundation appear more appreciative of Dr. Wu’s work and contributions to Jurassic World, allowing him to operate as he needed with little oversight.
While at Jurassic World, Dr. Wu’s working relationships appear to have been more formal and businesslike than at Jurassic Park. By this time, he had been employed as a geneticist at the company for many years, and it became more obvious that he considered himself superior to many of his colleagues. Many of his coworkers in the lab deeply respected him for his long experience and accomplishments, interpreting his behavior as confident rather than arrogant. Nonetheless, he does not appear to have had any genuine friendships among his colleagues at Jurassic World, becoming more emotionally detached and dedicated solely to his work. When other park employees were reported dead in the 2015 incident, which Wu could have prevented by being more transparent about the Indominus rex, he showed no remorse for the results of his work and described the deaths as merely “unfortunate.” Not all of his coworkers were loyal to him, either: one scientist named Eddie is known to have been a double agent (probably for Mantah Corporation) and described Wu’s creations as “monsters” after the Indominus escape.
Wu’s changing relationship with his coworkers is perhaps best summed up by his relations with Dr. Amelia “Mia” Everett of the NMS Centre’s Genomics department. The secretive NMS Genetics Center was Wu’s own universe, more so than the Creation Lab or even Field Genetics Lab. Not even Hoskins was aware of what went on inside that complex, and Simon Masrani himself had limited access by invitation only. At first, the research project there was overseen by Dr. Svetlanda Mashir, but after a review of that project in mid-2012, Wu was impressed enough with Dr. Mashir’s subordinate Dr. Everett that he promoted Everett to the lead position. This made her second only to Dr. Wu within the Centre. As time went on, Wu continued to commend Everett’s work, but by 2014 he had grown weary of her desire to be recognized as the brains behind the NMS Centre’s success with its raptor project. When Simon Masrani observed a demonstratory incubation at the Centre, both Drs. Wu and Everett were present, but Wu did not bother to even introduce his once valued employee, preferring to take all the credit for himself. By 2015, Wu and Everett were bitter enemies, and parted ways on bad terms several months before Jurassic World closed. Wu had threatened to report Everett to the Board of Directors for insubordination, but no action was taken, and they did not speak again for almost three years. Wu and Everett were brought back together in early 2018 by Wu’s employer Eli Mills, who hired Everett to assist briefly with the Indoraptor project, but neither scientist was happy about this arrangement.
After the 2015 incident, Wu was disgraced and stripped of his credentials. It is not known how most of his former colleagues in the lab perceive him in light of these events. Wu did continue working with InGen Security personnel hired by Vic Hoskins, who helped him evacuate Isla Nublar and evade the law. It is known that he was still in contact with InGen Security’s Kurt Reed and I.B.R.I.S. neurobiologist Dr. Gordoff until both of their deaths in 2016. While at the Lockwood estate, he was assisted by skilled geneticists from around the world; Eli Mills describes them as “imported,” but it is not unlikely that some of them were former Jurassic World employees who remained loyal to Wu. Likewise, many members of InGen Security were highly loyal to Hoskins, and realistically their best chance at avoiding the consequences of the 2015 incident would have been to seek employment with Mills. The mercenaries hired by Mills for the operations at the estate were protective of Wu, since he was the project’s most valuable asset, and evacuated him safely during the later 2018 incident.
This is not to say that Wu had no issues with his coworkers at the Lockwood estate. During the removal of dinosaurs from Isla Nublar, one of the hired mercenaries shot the Velociraptor Blue to near-fatal effect, which jeopardized the future of Wu’s research. The leader of Mills’s capture operation, Ken Wheatley, was also responsible for releasing the prototype Indoraptor unintentionally. Once released, the animal killed several security staff hired by Mills before dying in violent conflict with Blue. Before the incident, at least one of the lab technicians had died at the claws of the prototype. Wu does not appear to have known most of his technicians on sight, since he did not recognize Franklin Webb posing as a staff member.
By the early 2010s, Benjamin Lockwood became involved with Jurassic World again via his estate manager Eli Mills. While it is unclear exactly how they met, Mills eventually provided funding to the military bioengineering project that Vic Hoskins and Henry Wu were working on between 2008 and 2012. This was done using Lockwood’s fortune without his knowledge. While Wu was solely interested in pushing the boundaries of his research and staying ahead of the competition, Hoskins had more patriotic goals, intending to sell the results to the United States Armed Forces. Mills, on the other hand, sought to increase the Lockwood fortune and one day inherit it via Lockwood’s granddaughter Maisie. Wu had little care for Hoskins’s or Mills’s aims, wanting only to have his research funded and properly appreciated.
The Indominus rex, a hybrid theropod designed for combat, hatched in 2012. Its biological attributes exceeded expectations, and since Wu and Hoskins had been so secretive about its true nature, Jurassic World’s staff were unprepared to handle it. This caused the incident of 2015 which permanently closed the park. During the incident, Wu was evacuated by InGen Security to avoid legal consequences and was brought to the Lockwood estate. Hoskins did not survive.
For the next three years, Mills kept Wu under his wing and provided him with all he needed to continue their line of research. With Hoskins gone, the idea of selling bioengineered military animals to the United States alone was abandoned in favor of putting the creatures on the international black market. While Mills provided Wu with state-of-the-art facilities and resources and consistently sheltered him from the law, their relationship was far from harmonious. Mills wanted results quickly, while Wu refused to rush his work. Over time, Mills grew impatient with Wu’s exploratory scientific methods, demanding that he create the animal he promised immediately. By that time, Wu had engineered a prototype Indoraptor as planned, but the creature expressed many behavioral problems that made it unsuitable for paramilitary use.
In 2018, Mills made a saving throw to fund Wu’s research and make useful Indoraptors. He took advantage of the Mount Sibo controversy to manipulate Claire Dearing and Benjamin Lockwood into engaging in an illegal rescue mission, which was staffed by mercenaries that Mills hired. This would allow them to capture dinosaurs to sell on the black market as seed money, while also allowing them to obtain Blue for Wu’s research. Mills did not fully understand why Wu needed Blue, or exactly how Wu was accomplishing his results; this frustrated Wu further. Fortunately for them, the capture operation was largely a success. The auction proceeded without issue for its first half, but during the midway feature of the Indoraptor prototype, Mills and auctioneer Gunnar Eversoll permitted bidders starting with Russian mobster Anton Orlov to bid on the creature. This angered Wu, who grew fearful that his creation would go open-source. This was the last Wu would see of Mills as he stormed out of the auction, since the operation was disrupted by animal rights activists and Mills would die in the incident.
Henry Wu has impressed the global scientific community since his undergraduate days at MIT, when his undergraduate thesis gained nationwide attention. He graduated in 1986 with a PhD in genetics, almost immediately going to work for International Genetic Technologies on a mysterious project.
Jurassic Park happened almost entirely behind closed doors, including its failure. Wu was not on the island at the time of the incident in 1993. However, details about his dinosaurs unearthed during an investigation in 1994 prompted his research into hybridization. He would again make waves in the scientific community with his 1995 book The Next Step: An Evolution of God’s Concepts; a mere two years later, he would demonstrate that genetic hybridization could be used to create new genera of living things with Karacosis wutansis. This artificial species of flowering plant was bred in 1997 and officially named by the International Society of Geneticists on May 21.
Wu’s fame increased that same year when de-extinction was revealed to be fact, not fiction. The public became enthralled with dinosaurs, and the creation of a second Jurassic Park was inevitable. His research was widely regarded by scientists the world over as some of the most groundbreaking work in biology; Wu’s opinions were considered prophetic in many cases, and his wildest scientific predictions often became reality in short order. He was known to publish in scientific journals read by countless other academics.
While Wu’s research has long been considered controversial, his fame and scientific outreach practices cushioned him from serious criticism from his fellow scientists. This ended in late 2015, when it was revealed that he had colluded with corrupt InGen Security head Vic Hoskins to engage in military bioengineering. This was considered a morally bankrupt practice by many, and after he went into hiding following the incident, Wu was brought under investigation for bioethical misconduct. He was heavily criticized by scientists such as Dr. J. R. Phillips, who was in 2017 the head of the U.S. National Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics. These events led to Wu being stripped of his credentials after he was found guilty of bioethical misconduct. He was disgraced in the scientific community, with many scientists rejecting his work after the corruption was discovered. It is unknown how much respect his earlier work still holds in light of more recent developments, or whether any prominent scientific minds still support him.
Wu’s research has been of interest to the U.S. and international governments since it became publicly known in 1997. It is unknown how much any government knew about de-extinction prior to this, as that era of de-extinction history is shrouded in secrecy. The advances in genetic engineering he has pioneered have massive scientific, medical, and economic implications, as well as potential for use in other governmental interests such as biosecurity.
The governments of the United States and Costa Rica in particular have placed limitations on Wu’s studies in the past. Shortly after de-extinction became known to the public, the Gene Guard Act was passed, outlawing further de-extinction research and instead obligating InGen to provide for the welfare of the organisms it had brought to life. The United Nations also became involved, limiting access to Isla Nublar and the Muertes Archipelago. Wu and his genetics team violated all of these overseers by continuing de-extinction research on Isla Sorna between 1998 and 1999; the restrictions were rolled back in 2003 due to bribery.
Dr. Wu’s research became of interest to the United States Armed Forces after early 2008. InGen’s Head of Security Vic Hoskins proposed that genetic engineering could be used to create military animals to meet particular specifications. The result was the Indominus rex, as well as a new breed of Velociraptor for the I.B.R.I.S. Project; both were first hatched in 2012. It is unknown at this time how much the U.S. government was involved with or aware of these operations. By the time the project was shifted entirely into the private sector after the events of late 2015, Wu had fallen out of favor with several organizations of the U.S. government, including the U.S. House Committee of Science (a committee of the House of Representatives within Congress) and the U.S. National Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics. His creations have caused issues for numerous other American governmental organizations such as the Department of Wildlife, which has worked to track and relocate problematic de-extinct animals since the summer of 2018.
In 2016, the United States federal government raided Wu’s laboratory facilities after he was stripped of his credentials. All of his Indominus specimens were acquired during these raids. What the U.S. government has done with these samples remains undisclosed. In addition, Wu has permitted several foreign criminals including notorious Russian mobster Anton Orlov to obtain de-extinct animals and other valuable genetic resources, which is a national security concern to the United States and other countries.
Though Wu’s undergraduate thesis at MIT gained recognition throughout the United States and his 1995 book made waves in the scientific world, he would not become a major public figure until May of 1997. On the 21st, his artificial genus of flowering plant was officially named Karacosis wutansis by the International Society of Geneticists, a scientific first. That same year, de-extinction was revealed firsthand to the people of San Diego, California and then the world. While harm was brought to some of these witnesses and many people around the world were horrified by the reality of de-extinction, many others saw it as a miraculous accomplishment and praised Wu for it.
His fame continued to grow in the twenty-first century, especially from 2002 onward when Jurassic World was revealed to the public. By 2004, Wu was instantly recognizable to anyone who was interested in genetic engineering or Jurassic Park’s history. After Jurassic World opened in 2005, he rapidly became a celebrity scientist and a prominent figure in science communication. He appeared frequently in Jurassic World and InGen promotional videos, describing to laypeople and scientists alike the kind of research that was being performed at Jurassic World and its implications. Wu has always had his critics, but it appears that between 2005 and 2015, he was generally viewed favorably by the public. Even his hybrid theropod Indominus rex was well-received, with ticket sales to Jurassic World dramatically rising after it was announced in early 2015.
The incident of late 2015 was just as bad for Wu’s public reputation as it was for most of his other associations and relationships. Scores of people were injured during a pterosaur feeding frenzy on Main Street that was directly caused by the escape of the Indominus, which Wu could have helped to prevent by being transparent with his coworkers and employers. At the time of the incident, tourists were unaware of what led to the attack; without any context, it would have appeared that the animals escaped spontaneously. The public blamed Jurassic World’s owners Masrani Global, as well as the animals themselves, for the incident. It was not until Claire Dearing acted as a whistleblower that the public became aware that Wu’s corrupt practices were the main contributing factors in the incident.
Since Dearing’s public testimony and further criticism from organizations as diametrically opposed as the Dinosaur Protection Group and Extinction Now!, Wu has become regarded publicly as a criminal. It follows suit that his main supporters in the present day are criminals themselves. In 2018, he endorsed an auction on the black market of numerous animals from Isla Nublar as well as genetic samples of various species. His creations, once a source of pride, were now a source of income as they were sold to buyers from several countries including Indonesia, the United States, and Russia. Had the auction been completed, twice as many creatures would have been sold, followed by other similar auctions in the future.
Genetically engineered organisms
Henry Wu’s decades of research have led to the de-extinction of literal thousands of plants and animals, as well as the synthesis of several artificial genera (at least three of which have been produced). The first de-extinct organism, Triceratops horridus, was cloned in 1986; this was the same year that Wu was hired by InGen, though it is uncertain if he contributed to its de-extinction or if this was chiefly accomplished by Dr. Laura Sorkin instead.
From that point onward, it is likely that Dr. Wu was the main contributor in virtually every species brought back from extinction. At least one exception to this was Troodon pectinodon, a species that was mainly worked on by Dr. Sorkin with no known contribution from Dr. Wu. Despite his advanced techniques, Wu’s creatures have almost all borne serious deviations from their fossil ancestors. Some, such as Dilophosaurus and Velociraptor, barely resemble the animals that they were attempted clones of, and exhibit unexpected characteristics such as venom and protogyny. In most of the more common species, Wu created multiple genetic versions while attempting to craft what he envisioned. This prominently occurs in Velociraptor and Pteranodon, which have several viable versions, but nearly all InGen animals have multiple versions that were at least created as a part of the genetic engineering process. It is likely that the plants Wu created, such as veriformans, went through several versions as well.
Although the first stages of a de-extinct animal’s life took place in Wu’s laboratories, he himself was not their main caretaker. In fact, from 1988 onward, he was deeply involved in preparations for Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar and probably spent less time on Isla Sorna. He kept track of animal hatches and notified CEO John Hammond about them, suggesting that he did participate heavily in the breeding of animals on Isla Nublar. His adult animals were looked after by his coworker Robert Muldoon and the veterinary staff under Dr. Gerry Harding, rather than Wu and his geneticists. Similarly, he probably did not work with adult dinosaurs very often in Jurassic World. In fact, he has shown discomfort around the mature Velociraptor Blue in 2018, visibly jumping when the caged animal showed signs of aggression and delegating tasks that required direct interaction to lab staff. His completely insufficient housing for the Indoraptor also suggests that Wu has little understanding of his animals’ needs as adults.
Even if Wu did not work with his animals after they left his lab, he still shows great pride in them and considers each one a worthy accomplishment. He acknowledges his mistakes in the engineering process during the 1980s and 1990s, but has used them as inspiration rather than viewing them as things to regret. The existence of protogyny in Velociraptor surprised him when he confirmed it after the 1994 cleanup operation, and this led him to further study the practical applications of gene splicing. Without mistakes such as these, Wu would never have discovered his true passion and crowning accomplishment: the creation of entirely novel species.
Wu predicted in 1995 that, in perhaps a few decades, genetic hybridization could be used to craft species that could never have evolved in nature. A mere two years later, he proved himself correct by engineering a plant species, Karacosis wutansis, in the lab. Wu continued this line of research over the next decade, eventually creating hybrid animals such as Stegoceratops and Indominus rex; he actually bred two of the latter in 2012, though both had died by the end of 2015. He furthered development of the Indominus genome between 2016 and 2018, creating a prototype of a new genus called Indoraptor; however, this prototype also died.
Although Wu considers his engineered organisms as a great source of pride, he is also something of a neglectful creator. Once they have left his lab, his creations are mainly useful to him as a means of determining how successful his genetic engineering methods are. If the organism expresses the desired traits as it grows and lives, it is a success. If not, Wu needs to try something different. In either case, once the results are in, Wu has not been known to show special care or interest in his living creations. Blue the Velociraptor has been an interesting exception to this, as he intended to use her to further his Indoraptor project; ironically, though, this animal was a major participant in the end of that project. She was involved in a clash which destroyed Wu’s laboratory and later killed the Indoraptor prototype.
In fact, most of Wu’s specimens that were ever bred are now deceased. Some perished in the 1993 incident and the ensuing years, along with those that died during the research and development of Jurassic Park. Illegal research in the late 1990s led to many Isla Sorna specimens perishing due to ecological instability. Jurassic World was overall more successful, but with so many new animals and plants being bred, the failure rate was likely reasonable. The weaker Indominus was cannibalized by its sibling, and the survivor was drowned by Wu’s own Mosasaurus. Plenty of other animals died in the 2015 incident, and with Jurassic World abandoned, scores more died out over the next three years. The eruption of Mount Sibo on June 23, 2018 killed hundreds more animals. The plant species that Wu created were essentially ignored by activists in favor of the more charismatic animal species, and so over two thousand species of de-extinct flora are almost certainly now extinct. Wu’s latest hybrid species, the Indoraptor, is also extinct.
Henry Wu is portrayed by BD Wong. He is loosely adapted from the character of the same name in Michael Crichton‘s novel. However, in the novel Wu is arrogant but is never portrayed as a villain, and dies while attempting to help the others. Wu’s role in the film version of Jurassic Park was highly reduced compared to his novel appearance, leaving the island before anything goes wrong and living to reappear in the Jurassic World trilogy. He also had a minor appearance in the animated series Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, where he was voiced by Greg Chun.
As with many fictional characters who are meant to be controversial, Henry Wu has accrued a small cult following of fans online. BD Wong appears aware of this and has joked about his character’s ego on social media in response. Since the beginning of the Jurassic World trilogy, Wong has made repeated appearances in video games, animated cartoons, commercials, and other media as his character, and appears to enjoy Henry Wu to a great degree as he frequently references his role.