Hadrosaurus foulkii (S/F)

Hadrosaurus was a duck-billed dinosaur that was native to North America, particularly the East Coast, around 79.5 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period. It was the first North American dinosaur fossil identified by more than isolated teeth. Originally found in 1839 in Haddonfield, New Jersey, Hadrosaurus is primarily known from limited and fragmentary material. It was named by paleontologist Joeseph Leidy in 1858. The species name foukii honors William Parker Foulke, a philanthropist who was pivotal in the discovery and naming of the animal. Hadrosaurus itself means “bulky lizard” or “large lizard,” and was named the official state dinosaur of New Jersey. The material found for Hadrosaurus was a set of limbs, pelvis, parts of the feet, 28 vertebrae, eight teeth. and two very small and fragmentary pieces of the jaw. The discovery of Hadrosaurus demonstrated to scientists and the public at the time that there were many new fossil species to be discovered in North America. It also gave a gentle push for scientists into a more accurate direction regarding restorations of dinosaurs. In fact, Hadrosaurus was restored at the time in a bipedal stance, unlike Iguanodon and Megalosaurus, which had been restored as quadrupedal animals a couple decades before.

Hadrosaurus was possibly cloned by InGen, but the evidence for it has always been a matter of debate considering not only just the fragmentary nature of the animal, but its own presence in the original novel. It does not appear on InGen’s list, highly suggesting that none were ever created. It does feature on the holoscape exhibit at the Samsung Innovation Center, but was not present on Isla Nublar at any point in time according to the Dinosaur Protection Group.

Description
Early prop from The Lost World: Jurassic Park featuring Hadrosaurus. No such prop appeared in the film itself.

The appearance of Hadrosaurus is mostly unknown, as only one incomplete fossil has ever been found and the animal has not appeared in any of the films. However, a possible prop featuring the animal has surfaced, depicting it as a typical small hadrosaur with no head ornamentation and a comparatively short tail. The single existing photograph of this prop is impossible to read due to the photo quality, but the animal appears to be 15 to 20 feet in length and around seven or eight feet tall when standing on its hind legs. A short, muscular ridge can be seen on its back, and the small head terminates in a thick keratinous beak structure with large nostrils. The beak appears to overlap the front of the animal’s lower jaw, concealing the lower jaw when the mouth is closed.

Coloration remains unknown, as the illustration is only a sketch. There appears to be some striping on the dorsal side, but this may be creases in the skin rather than pigmentation.

A Hadrosaurus icon on the holoscape attraction at the Samsung Innovation Center in 2015 depicts a similarly-proportioned animal.

Growth

Hatchling and juvenile stages have not been depicted.

Sexual Dimorphism

No sexual dimorphism is known in this animal due to lack of observed specimens.

Habitat
Preferred Habitat

The only known fossil of Hadrosaurus was recovered from marine sediments from the Woodbury Formation, suggesting that the animal had been washed out to sea by means of a river. This suggests that it lived near sources of fresh water. None have appeared in the Jurassic Park films, so its habitat has not been depicted.

Isla Nublar

No Hadrosaurus have ever been reported on Isla Nublar.

Isla Sorna

No Hadrosaurus have ever been reported on Isla Sorna. If any were ever created by InGen, records of it are nonexistent.

Behavior and Ecology
Daily Activity

The activity patterns of Hadrosaurus are unknown.

Diet and Feeding Behavior

All hadrosaurs are herbivores, and most are known to feed on conifers, horsetails, broad-leafed plants, seeds, and fruits. It is believed that they were grazers which could chew their food.

Social Behavior

While the social behaviors of Hadrosaurus are unknown due to the animal not being cloned, its relatives Edmontosaurus, Corythosaurus, and Parasaurolophus have been observed to be highly gregarious and enjoying the company of other herbivorous dinosaurs as well as their own species.

Reproduction

As with all dinosaurs, Hadrosaurus would lay eggs to reproduce. However, details about its reproductive cycle are unknown due to a lack of specimens.

Vocalizations

Without any specimens, there is no way to determine the vocalizations of the Hadrosaurus.

Ecological Interactions

Hadrosaurus was a herbivore which preyed on plants in its habitat. Apart from this, its ecological relationships are uncertain.

Interactions with Humans

While this animal was never cloned and thus has not interacted with humans, it has not escaped human interest in the Genetic Age. Along with a number of other prehistoric species which had yet to be cloned, it was one of the animals featured in the holoscape exhibit at the Samsung Innovation Center. Visitors could swipe an icon to generate a full-sized, lifelike Hadrosaurus hologram which would move and vocalize like the real animal. This suggests that InGen’s geneticists were able to gather enough data from recovered DNA to determine the animal’s full appearance, and possibly even what it sounded like. Whether there were plans to create it in Jurassic World remains unknown.

Behind the Scenes

During the production of The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a template was created for Hadrosaurus to appear in Roland‘s manifest; however, the design for the species packet was changed and the animal itself was not included in the final film. In the original script for the film, it would have been one of several species which Dr. Robert Burke assigned particular hunters to track down and capture, along with Maiasaura and Corythosaurus (misidentified as “Maiasaurus” and “Carinthosaurus”). The script did not identify it at any other point, but presumably it would have appeared at some point.

Other external promotional media has indicated it may have existed on Isla Sorna, but no official statements have confirmed it. At present, its existence is highly unlikely considering it did not appear in any of the Dinosaur Protection Group material.