Indoraptor was a hybrid genus of genetically-modified theropod created by American geneticist Henry Wu sometime after June 2016. It was an extension of the already-existing Indominus rex concept, and the third hybrid genus known from living specimens (after Karacosis wutansis and Indominus rex). Other hybrid genera, including the Stegoceratops, are not known to have been bred and likely exist only as genetic samples. Its genus name appears to be a portmanteau of Indominus and Velociraptor, the two genera utilized to create its genome. It has not been confirmed to have a specific epithet.
The Indoraptor had been conceptualized by Wu and former head of InGen Security Vic Hoskins sometime between 2012 and 2015, but was not actually bred until after June 2016. By this time, Hoskins had died due to an animal attack and Wu had been stripped of his credentials by the U.S. government following an investigation into bioethical misconduct. Nonetheless, Wu and his team of geneticists succeeded in creating the Indoraptor by augmenting the Indominus genome with additional Velociraptor DNA. The project was bankrolled by Eli Mills, the financial manager of the Lockwood Foundation and Benjamin Lockwood‘s fortune.
Hoskins and Mills conceptualized the Indoraptor as the ideal military animal, believing it to be more manageable than the Indominus due to its smaller size, heightened metacognitive abilities, and pack mentality derived from Velociraptor. Its creation was considered the culmination of both the Indominus project (the first experiment in military bioengineering) and the Integrated Behavioral Raptor Intelligence Study (which investigated deinonychosaurian behavior to determine how best to facilitate human-animal interaction). However, as of June 2018, the Indoraptor project was still in the prototype stage.
It is classified in the family Chimeridae (which is fictional, and should not be confused with the similarly-spelled factual family Chimaeridae).
Unlike the Indominus, its genetic makeup is largely unknown due to its being developed in the private sector rather than being sanctioned by InGen. However, some of its gene donors are known:
- Indominus rex: This hybrid animal was used as the base genome of the Indoraptor; this species was itself designed using the DNA of multiple dinosaurian and other animals. Other donor genes could be spliced into the Indominus genome to create the Indoraptor genome.
- Velociraptor antirrhopus: While the Indominus genome already contained Velociraptor antirrhopus genes, the Indoraptor genome features a larger proportion of them. This resulted in altered behavioral and anatomical traits, including a smaller size and leaner build, heightened metacognitive abilities and other neurological differences, and (in theory) a greater propensity for social behavior. Later versions of Indoraptor were planned to specifically use V. a. masranii genes in order to encourage social bonding with this subspecies, but the subspecies used in the prototype is unknown.
- Scrotifera: At least one currently-unidentified genus of mammal was sourced for structural genes which would facilitate the development of structures allowing the Indoraptor to navigate using echolocation, according to the Jurassic World mobile games and other sources. Animals capable of advanced echolocation are microbats (as well as the megabat genus Rousettus) and toothed cetaceans. While some other animals are capable of more crude forms of echolocation, the advanced nature of the Indoraptor‘s echolocatory abilities suggest that the genes sourced for this ability come from either the microbats or toothed cetaceans.
The Indoraptor grows to approximately 7.3 meters (23.95 feet) long and, when standing on two legs, about 3.1 meters (10.17 feet) tall. Its weight at adulthood has been estimated at 997.9 kilograms (2,200 pounds, or 1.1 tons). This makes it considerably larger than Velociraptor antirrhopus, though much smaller than the projected adult size of Indominus rex. It is roughly the same length as the largest-known fossil dromaeosaurid, Utahraptor ostrommaysorum, but weighs about twice as much. Its physiology makes it highly resistant to tranquilizers.
This animal is a facultative biped, capable of walking on two legs or all fours as needed. It is generally more inclined to walk on all fours; it typically rises onto two legs when it needs to scope out its surrounding environment and only occasionally runs on two legs. When on all fours, it locomotes with a galloping movement. This is a fairly fast and nimble animal, but is still slower and less agile than the more lightweight Velociraptor. It is, however, more lightweight than Indominus as it has fewer osteoderms.
The Indoraptor‘s skull is not heavily influenced by abelisaurid or carcharodontosaurid traits like the Indominus, instead displaying features from its tyrannosaurid and deinonychosaurian parents. The skull possesses a large, powerful jaw with up to seventy-four widely spaced, conical teeth; these protrude slightly outward like those of the Indominus. They are, however, much more firmly embedded in the jaws and do not break off easily. Its tongue, like that of the Indominus, is a pink color and is narrowly triangular; it cannot protrude out of the mouth. It possesses more advanced facial muscles than most other dinosaurs, allowing it to form more complex facial expressions. The eyes are comparatively small, though the Indoraptor is able to see in low light; its pupils are vertical slits, giving it excellent depth perception when hunting low to the ground. The irises are yellow-orange, and the eyes are cleaned and protected by translucent nictitating membranes which originate from the medial canthus. Short and thin quills are visible on the back of the skull.
Its intelligence capacity is among the highest of non-human animals, comparable to that of its parent species Velociraptor antirrhopus. The V. antirrhopus itself is believed by some scientists to be the second-most intelligent animal species after humans, surpassing cetaceans and non-human primates in intellectual ability. The large head of the Indoraptor contains a complex brain, a necessary feature for interpreting its surroundings using its powerful senses. Along with being able to see in low-light conditions without difficulty, this animal has a powerful sense of smell; its genetic parent species are also known for being able to smell with great accuracy. Tyrannosaurus rex, for example, is capable of accurately scenting up to ten miles away from its location, while Velociraptor antirrhopus has a more modest scent range of one mile. The Indoraptor‘s ears are also highly advanced, giving it an acute sense of hearing. It is capable of using echolocation to navigate in pitch-blackness where its vision fails. It is unknown whether it can sense thermal radiation like Indominus, or whether it can modulate its own thermal output.
The limbs of the Indoraptor are muscular and quite long; its forelimbs are the same length as its hindlimbs and it is easily capable of quadrupedal locomotion. The forelimbs, like those of Indominus, terminate in four-fingered hands with opposable thumbs that it can use to manipulate objects and prey; each of these digits end in large hooked claws. The hindlimbs, on the other hand, end in three-toed feet (without a vestigial dewclaw); the innermost toe features a curved talon approximately six or seven inches in length similar to that of deinonychosaurs. The other toes also have hooked claws, though they are less dramatic in appearance. This differs from Indominus, which possesses feet more like those of tyrannosaurids. Indoraptor is capable of navigating very quietly due to the anatomy of its hands and feet, and its hands can be used as highly adept manipulators due to the flexibility range of its shoulder joints. Unlike other dinosaurs, it is capable of raising its arms higher higher than its shoulders. It has pronated hands like those of most InGen theropods, but benefits from this anatomy as that permits it to walk on all fours. Along with being able to manipulate objects and move quickly and quietly, the Indoraptor‘s clawed digits make it an excellent climber.
Its body is surprisingly thin, and in the case of the only known surviving adult the bones were plainly outlined underneath the skin. This is suspected to be a case of malnutrition; however, Indoraptors bred in Jurassic World: Evolution and the Ludia mobile games show similar scrawny appearances. Alternatively to malnutrition, the Indoraptor‘s physiology may include an extremely high metabolism which prevents it from gaining weight easily. A row of keratinous dermal plates exist along its dorsal ridge, the only armor on its body; on either side of these plates are rows of small keratinous spines. These are mixed with quills, similar to but longer than those found on the skull. Its quills can be raised or lowered to express its mood, with raised quills indicating a heightened emotional state such as excitement or aggression. The rows of spines, quills, and dorsal plates extend from the neck until slightly past the hips. The rest of its body is covered in small round scales. Like that of the Indominus, its skin is incredibly tough, and this makes the animal very durable. It is capable of shrugging off gunshots at close range without sustaining major injury.
The tail of the Indoraptor is thin, long, and highly flexible; it makes up roughly a third of the creature’s overall length. It is very muscular in addition to being flexible, similarly to that of Velociraptor. The tail mostly functions to provide balance while running, but may be used as a weapon in some cases due to its strength and flexibility.
While only one Indoraptor has been observed, its coloration is very dark gray (bordering on black) over most of the body. Red markings were noticeable around the eye orbits of this individual, but these are suspected to be a health defect. Gold striping could be observed extending from just behind the jaw, underneath the legs, and roughly halfway down the tail on either flank; while the gold stripes merged underneath the tail, it lacked significant countershading on other parts of its ventral side. Gold markings were also visible on the dorsal spikes, and the quills were slightly yellowish in color. Deleted concepts would have featured a white-colored Indoraptor with silver rather than gold striping; it is unknown if such an individual was ever created. The Indoraptor is not believed to possess chromatophores like the Indominus.
The growth stages of the Indoraptor are mostly unknown, as only the adult has been observed directly. However, the growth stages of Indominus rex and Velociraptor antirrhopus have been observed; the growth stages of Tyrannosaurus rex may also provide some insight into what changes a growing Indoraptor experiences throughout its life.
An individual bred sometime after June 2016 was fully mature by June 2018, suggesting that its maturation rate is somewhere in the range of two years. This is faster than the maturation rate of Indominus, which matures in somewhat more than three years. Like the Indominus, the inclusion of genes from a species of cuttlefish is likely responsible for its ability to survive an expedited growth rate, but the inclusion of physiological traits from Velociraptor (which has a similarly fast growth rate) likely helps as well.
Only the male Indoraptor has been observed directly, meaning any sexual dimorphism is unknown; it is unlikely that Henry Wu would have implemented sexual dimorphism into this creature as it was intended purely for combat purposes. However, the Indoraptors which can be bred in Jurassic World: The Game are referred to as female in the Code 19 dialogue, and largely resemble the male which has been observed in the film canon. While sexual dimorphism is prominent in Velociraptor and Tyrannosaurus, it may not be present in Indoraptor.
No Indoraptor thus far has been released into the wild, so its habitat preferences are not known. Its physiological traits, however, can give some idea of the kind of habitat it would thrive in. It is able to see in very dim light, in addition to having excellent senses of smell and hearing. This would make it well-adapted to dark conditions such as caves and dense forests. Its dark coloration would also make it good at hiding in dark environments. The Indoraptor‘s claws allow it to climb very well, which would allow it to navigate environments with tall trees or cliffs without difficulty.
Complex environments would also suit the Indoraptor, as it is able to manipulate objects and has high levels of problem-solving intelligence. It was genetically engineered as a military animal, so it is very likely that these traits were deliberately chosen by Henry Wu and his team to help the Indoraptor operate well in urban areas and other places inhabited by humans.
In Jurassic World: Evolution, an Indoraptor requires a territory encompassing 15,500 square meters of grassland and 10,200 square meters of forest to remain comfortable.
While the Indoraptor was conceptualized in Henry Wu’s laboratory on Isla Nublar, there is no evidence that any attempts to create it were made on the island.
There is no evidence that any Indoraptor has ever been created on Isla Sorna.
One male Indoraptor, considered a prototype, was bred and raised to maturity in the sub-basement laboratory at Benjamin Lockwood‘s estate by disgraced InGen geneticist Henry Wu and his team sometime after June 2016. There is some evidence that failed attempts had occurred before. It is possible that at least one other individual was raised to maturity with success, but only one Indoraptor was confirmed to be alive as of June 23, 2018. However, Wu and Eli Mills did have plans to create more in the future.
During the night of June 24, 2018, the Indoraptor escaped confinement due to mishandling by hired mercenary Ken Wheatley. It did not flee the estate even when presented with the opportunity to do so, and instead remained on the property. During the night, it came into conflict with I.B.R.I.S. Velociraptor Blue and was killed.
It is unknown if Wu is currently in possession of any Indoraptor genetic samples, or if he was unable to retrieve them from his laboratory during the incident. If he failed to take them during the evacuation, then the only remaining Indoraptor genetic source would be the carcass of the prototype which died in 2018. The current location and status of this carcass are unknown. The last accessible sample of Indominus DNA was destroyed during the incident as well, and as Wu is unable to access the samples that were seized by the U.S. government following the Jurassic World incident, it may be impossible for him to create another Indoraptor genome.
As of such, Indoraptor is believed to be extinct.
Behavior and Ecology
The Indoraptor‘s physiology suggests that it would be nocturnal, as it has excellent night vision and the ability to echolocate. However, as the only known individual was kept indoors for virtually all of its life, its true activity patterns are not confirmed.
In the mobile game Jurassic World: The Game, an Indoraptor will remain active for ten hours at a time.
Diet and Feeding Behavior
Like its genetic parents, the Indoraptor is carnivorous. Its physiology enables it to stalk prey with great efficiency even in conditions with low visibility, as Henry Wu intentionally designed it for this purpose. The predatory traits of Indominus are largely represented in this descendant, while attributes of Velociraptor are enhanced. It has a reliable sense of smell, though it may become briefly confused in unfamiliar environments, and it has inherited the vertical slit pupils of both its genetic ancestors. Unlike the Indominus, a tall predator with no use for vertical pupils, the Indoraptor hunts low to the ground and in dark conditions where vertical slits would greatly benefit its ability to judge depth. Such a trait helps it to accurately pounce on its target.
It can locate prey not only with its excellent eyesight and olfaction, but with its sense of hearing coupled with the ability to echolocate. By emitting sounds (either vocalizations or tapping on a hard surface with its claws), it is able to listen for echoes and pinpoint exactly where objects in its environment are located. The Indoraptor‘s echolocatory abilities are said to be more accurate than those of bats. Its intelligence also permits it to devise ambush strategies, including behaving helpless in order to give potential prey a false sense of security.
Once it has located its prey, the Indoraptor is able to overwhelm it with its speed and strength. It makes use of its powerful limbs and gaping jaws to snatch, disembowel, and consume human-sized prey items; it is likely that it could take down larger animals if given the opportunity. At times, it will begin eating while its prey is still alive, much like Velociraptor. Often times, it will consume the entire body of its prey, bones and all, without leaving any scraps behind. The prototype was known to eat multiple adult humans in under an hour without appearing satiated, suggesting that its metabolism kept it in a state of perpetual hunger. This may not have been the case in later, more finalized versions of the animal.
Only one Indoraptor is confirmed to have existed. Deleted concepts suggest that it had a sibling at some point, but the surviving prototype killed the sibling. This is similar to the behavior exhibited by the Indominus siblings, the stronger of which cannibalized the weaker. While Velociraptor antirrhopus is a very social animal, Indominus rex is aggressively solitary; this appears to be the case in Indoraptor as well.
Henry Wu believed that a more refined Indoraptor could have had social tendencies more like those of Velociraptor, and that the prototype’s lack of empathy and loyalty was due to its lacking a maternal figure. He believed that using a V. antirrhopus as a surrogate parent would have encouraged more social behaviors in Indoraptor; however, his hypothesis was unable to be put to the test as his research was halted before any more Indoraptors could be bred.
Jurassic World: Evolution portrays the Indoraptor as an exclusively solitary animal.
No Indoraptors are believed to have been bred naturally, with the only confirmed specimen or specimens having been bred under artificial conditions using surrogate or synthetic eggs. It is unknown if the Indoraptor would be capable of breeding naturally at all, given its complex hybrid genome. The prototype’s antisocial behavior would likely ensure it never bred, but Wu was attempting to engineer new versions with more socially-inclined behavior patterns which may have been capable of breeding on their own.
All dinosaurs lay eggs to reproduce, and the Indoraptor would likely do so as well. The eggs of medium-sized dinosaurs typically incubate for around three to six months, and theropods generally lay ovoid eggs. The Indoraptor most likely has a cloaca which houses its reproductive organs, as this is observed in other theropod species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor.
Sounds made by Indoraptor consist of hissing, screeching, and growling cries. Most of the noises produced by the prototype served to intimidate its handlers, which it had a negative relationship with and often expressed violence toward. Like Velociraptor, it could sometimes be heard making barking cries; these, however, were not used for interspecies communication like Indominus. The only instance of barking cries being used were instead meant to facilitate echolocation.
Presumably, all of the cries emitted from the Indoraptor‘s mouth could be used for echolocatory purposes. It was also known to tap its enlarged innermost toe on hard surfaces, generating a sharp clicking noise which presumably could also be used for echolocation.
In Jurassic World: Evolution, the harsh noises made by the Indoraptor to intimidate enemies are also used for territorial purposes.
There is no known natural ecology for the Indoraptor, as it is an artificially-engineered species.
If ever released into the wild, it would naturally be a predator of small and medium-sized animals. It is known to feed on humans, but other common mammals such as goats and cattle would likely be potential prey as well.
The prototype was not known to interact with many other animal species apart from humans due to the fact that it was kept inside the Lockwood estate up until the night of its death. It was able to observe an escaped Stygimoloch at one point, and likely at least heard the distressed vocalizations of other dinosaurs kept in the sub-basement, but did not directly interact with them. Henry Wu had intentions to utilize I.B.R.I.S. Velociraptor antirrhopus masranii Blue as a surrogate mother for future generations of Indoraptors, but the prototype was involved in a fight with this same raptor which resulted in the prototype’s death.
In Jurassic World: Evolution, the Indoraptor can be a host for parasitic hookworms. The prototype appears to have been infected with pathogenic bacteria which caused lesions and other health issues on its body.
Relationship to Humans
Indoraptor was designed by Henry Wu and his colleagues to be a combat-ready animal, without any pretense of being a Jurassic World attraction like the Indominus supposedly was. Vic Hoskins had made plans with Henry Wu between 2008 and 2015 to engage in military bioengineering, creating the ideal combat animal for the United States Armed Forces; Eli Mills, who financed the operation, was more interested in selling the result for money. In any case, the Indoraptor was never intended to be a naturalistic animal and was always meant to fight.
During its time in captivity, the Indoraptor prototype is believed to have killed at least one technician. It was tranquilized in order to allow the technician to replace a burnt-out light in its cage, but the necessary dose was underestimated. The Indoraptor, having previously discerned the purpose of the tranquilizer darts, feigned unconsciousness and killed the technician. It was later seen to have kept the technician’s skull as a plaything. On June 24, 2018, the Indoraptor made use of this same trick to kill mercenary Ken Wheatley, escaping from its cage as a result.
Henry Wu’s staff members are highly suspected of neglecting and even abusing the prototype, likely as it was not considered a success and therefore of lesser value to them. When it was exhibited as a teaser to future buyers, the animal was electrocuted with shock prods to display its aggressive behaviors. It was also conditioned to respond to a visual and acoustic signal emitted by a modified rifle by attacking the indicated target: a laser sight would select the target, followed by a high-pitched noise which would trigger the animal to attack. This conditioning was immensely successful in the prototype, with an almost irresistible urge to follow the command.
During the illegal auction at the Lockwood estate on June 24, 2018, the prototype was demonstrated to buyers in the hopes that they would return to buy more refined versions of the animal. Despite Wu’s insistence that the prototype should not be sold, Mills permitted auctioneer Gunnar Eversoll to allow bidding on the creature. Russian mobster Anton Orlov started bidding at US $25,000,000 (1,578,197,973.90 in Russian rubles at that date) and eventually won the animal for a price of US $43,000,000 (2,714,500,515.11 in Russian rubles). However, the auction was disrupted by animal rights activists from the Dinosaur Protection Group with the assistance of former InGen animal behaviorist Owen Grady before Orlov could leave with the creature.
Following the animal’s aforementioned escape, it killed multiple auction attendees including the auctioneer Eversoll as well as at least three of Mills’s mercenaries. The animal stalked Grady, DPG founder Claire Dearing, and Benjamin Lockwood’s granddaughter Maisie through the estate for several minutes until the group, with assistance from Velociraptor Blue, led the Indoraptor to its death via impalement on a fossil display.
The Indoraptor, essentially, existed to be exploited. Its creation was the result of Henry Wu’s scientific ambition, Vic Hoskins’s American patriotism, and Eli Mills’s capitalistic motives. It was kept in seclusion its entire life, lived in poor health, never saw the sun, and spent only a few minutes outside before being led to its death; this took place shortly after being sold to a criminal on the black market for a large sum of money. Its interactions with humans were almost entirely negative; its only ambiguous relationship was its fascination with Maisie Lockwood, the only child it likely ever encountered. While many species have been exploited through human activity, the Indoraptor exemplifies this more than perhaps any other creature.
Based on Jurassic World: Evolution, the cost of raising an Indoraptor from fertilization to maturity as of 2018 would be $2,710,000.
Behind the Scenes
The Indoraptor was created as an extension of the Indominus, both in terms of plot and in terms of themes in the film series. It was intended to explore routes in the story that could have been taken with the Indominus but were overlooked in favor of the militainment leanings of Jurassic World. This creature was still not utilized to explore the ways in which an animal genetically engineered for combat would naturally be abused by its creators, though the implications are present (and were more prominent in earlier scripts).
Some scripts and concept art demonstrate a second Indoraptor with white-and-blue coloration which would have fought with and been killed by the black Indoraptor over the course of the film, but this second animal did not make the final cut. Other scrapped Indoraptors included several which were malformed and probably represented failed specimens. While these disfigured creatures have not appeared since, the white Indoraptor has appeared (in conjunction with the idea of using Blue’s DNA to create better Indoraptors) as the Indoraptor GEN 2 in the Ludia series of mobile games.
Indoraptor Prototype – first (and possibly only) member of this genus to survive infancy