The coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Common names include coast redwood, California redwood, and giant redwood. It is best known for being the tallest living tree, and among the largest living trees overall.
It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1200–1800 years or more. This species includes the tallest trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.52 m) in height and up to 26 feet (7.9 m) diameter at breast height. The roots are shallow in the ground and spread widely. Its bark can be up to a foot thick, soft and fibrous, and reddish-brown when first exposed; this is where the redwood gets its name. The bark becomes darker with time. Leaves may be up to an inch long, but in direct sunlight are smaller and scale-like. Seed cones are up to one and a quarter inches long and contain up to seven seeds, each of which has two wings.
Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred naturally in an estimated 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where rainfall is not abundant enough) and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States. They are more common in mountainous areas near the coast, where they benefit from precipitation coming off the ocean. Older and larger trees can be found in valleys, living off of rainfall and fog. Coastal fog benefits them, but salt spray and sandy soil keeps them from growing too close to the coastline. The environments where these trees grow is perpetually damp, and they have a very large need for water.
These trees are not normally found on Isla Nublar, but as of 2015, T. rex Kingdom had a redwood environment with trees that were probably artificially introduced. It is not known for certain whether these are S. sempervirens or a de-extinct relative.
It is likely that, without human intervention, these artificially-introduced redwoods began to suffer in their contained environment. The June 23, 2018 volcanic eruption of Mount Sibo likely destroyed the remaining trees, either directly (by means of lava bombs or pyroclastic debris) or indirectly (by depriving the trees of essential nutrition). Even if any survived thanks to the shelter of T. rex Kingdom, the lack of animals to provide nutrition into the soil and the absence of human maintenance would probably have resulted in the eventual death of all remaining redwoods on Isla Nublar.
On Isla Sorna, there are redwood forests in the higher-altitude parts of the northeast. Drs. Ian Malcolm and Sara Harding passed through several of these after the incident with the Stegosaurus family.
Redwoods are also present near the central region of the island, north of the Workers’ Village.
Redwood forests create a unique ecology because the trees use up most of the soil’s nutrients. As a result, they depend heavily on animal droppings and decomposition of dead trees to provide them with more nutrients. On Isla Sorna, the presence of large herbivorous dinosaurs would help these trees to thrive. Because of their size, redwoods provide habitats for dozens of smaller animals, including many birds, reptiles, and mammals. Redwoods are resistant to insects, rot, fire, and fungi, so they are usually undamaged by most ecological disturbances.
Dinosaur species known to inhabit redwood environments include Stegosaurus and Compsognathus. Based on an older script of The Lost World, it is possible that the sauropod Mamenchisaurus could be found among redwoods. There is evidence of Tyrannosaurus rex activity near redwoods as well. No animals have been depicted feeding on these trees in the franchise, and the trees are likely too large to be significantly damaged by any other than the very largest dinosaurs.